Table 1

Studies included in this Systematic Review

Year

First Author

Design

Study Participants and Setting

Response Rate and Sample Size

Outcomes Measured

Topic of Discussion


1990

Nelson, MV [26]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Random sample of hospital and community pharmacists in U.S. (the Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area) and Britain (nation wide)

U.S. pharmacists 19.7% (n = 197) British pharmacists 63.0% (n = 434)

Knowledge and professional practice behaviors

Alternative health approaches (AHA) which included "acupuncture, auriculotherapy, biofeedback, cellular therapy, chelation therapy, chiropractic, cytotoxic testing, faith healing, food allergy, hair analysis, herbal medicine, holistic medicine, homeopathy, hypnosis, iridology, laetrile therapy, megavitamin therapy, orthomolecular psychiatry, osteopathy, and reflexology"

1998

Brown, CM [16]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Random sample of community pharmacists in the State of Texas, U.S.

36.3% (n = 142)

Professional practice behaviors

Alternative therapies which were defined as "those therapies that are not generally taught in pharmacy and medical schools"

1998

Portyansky, E [27]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Convenience sample of community pharmacists in U.S. (nation wide)

45% (n = 400)

Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors

Alternative medicine products which were defined to include "herbal preparations, homeopathic products, and nutraceuticals"

1999

Bouldin, AS [15]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Geographically stratified random sample of community pharmacists in U.S. (nation wide)

26.3% (n = 512)

Attitudes and professional practice behaviors

Herbal medicines which were defined as "commercially-prepared herbal products"

2000

Bokma, A [7]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Convenience sample of community pharmacists in Canada (nation wide)

12.2% (n = 366)

Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors

Herbals (not explicitly defined)

2000

Chang, ZG [18]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Convenience sample of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, primary care, academia, hospital, long-term care, and other) in Virginia and North Carolina, U.S.

75.6% (n = 164)

Attitudes and knowledge

Herbal medications which were defined as being "derived from a single plant source"

2000

Little, WR [24]

Not reported

Community pharmacists (sampling not reported) in U.S. (exact location not reported)

n = > 200 (response rate not reported)

Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors

Herbals (not explicitly defined)

2000

Montbriand, MJ [25]

Cross sectional face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews

Random sample of pharmacists, physicians, and nurses in active practice in Saskatchewan, Canada

Pharmacists 89% (n = 49) Physicians 58% (n = 52) Nurses 88% (n = 52)

Attitudes and professional practice behaviors

Alternative therapies which were defined as "all health-related products or practices initiated or prescribed by the self, family, friends, or an alternative health-care healer"

2001

Howard, N [23]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Convenience sample of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, hospital, long-term care, drug information, and other) from the 1999 American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear Clinical Meeting in Orlando, Florida

Response rate not reported (n = 70)

Professional practice behaviors

Dietary supplements which were defined as "botanicals (herbs) and nutritional supplements (amino acids, hormones, vitamins, and minerals)"

2002

Hamilton, WR [22]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Random sample of pharmacists (practice setting not specified) and convenience sample of entry-level PharmD students enrolled in an elective CAM class in Nebraska, U.S.

Pharmacists 47% (n = 94) PharmD students 100% (n = 35)

Attitudes

Complementary and alternative therapies (not explicitly defined)

2003

Clauson, KA [19]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Census of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, primary care, academia, hospital, long-term care, and other) in Missouri, U.S.

18.2% (n = 534)

Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors

Natural products which were defined to include, but not be limited to, "herbs, mega-dose vitamins, minerals, hormones, and other chemical entities used by patients to maintain or improve their health".

2003

Dolder, C [20]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Random sample of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, hospital, long-term care, and other) in California, U.S.

21.4% (n = 428)

Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors

Alternative medications which were defined as "any product, including herbal remedies, vitamins, minerals, and natural products, that may be purchased at a health food store, pharmacy, supermarket, or alternative medicine store/magazine for the purpose of self-treatment"

2003

Welna, EM [28]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Random sample of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, hospital, industry, and other) in Minnesota, U.S.

52.4% (n = 533)

Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors

Herbal and other natural products (H/NPs) which were defined as "all products of plant, animal, or mineral origin"

2004

Wood, V [29]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Random sample of community pharmacists in Canada (nation wide)

10% (n = 533)

Professional practice behaviors

Herbal remedy (not explicitly defined)

2005

Brown, CM [17]

Cross sectional self completed questionnaire

Random sample of community pharmacists in the State of Texas, U.S.

27.0% (n = 107)

Professional practice behaviors

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) which was defined to include "herbal products, vitamins and minerals, homeopathic products, massage, meditation, and others"

2005

Dunn, JD [21]

Longitudinal self completed questionnaire

Convenience sample of community pharmacists in the State of Utah, U.S.

2003 10% (n = 19) 2004 26% (n = 63)

Attitudes and knowledge

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products which were defined as herbal or natural entities


Kwan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006 6:31   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-31

Open Data