Table 2

Components of treatment protocol in study of massage for neck pain

1. Styles or techniques allowed with no restrictions

1. Application of cold

2. Application of heat

3. Compression – pumping or static

4. Craniosacral

5. Friction or direct pressure

6. Cross-fiber friction

7. Gliding (effluerage) – Swedish

8. Gliding – deep (effluerage, stripping) – clinical

9. Holding

10. Kneading (petrissage)

11. Lymphatic drainage

12. Percussion (tapotement)

13. Rocking, jostling, shaking, vibration

14. ROM – active or resistive (also active assisted and/or resisted stretching, MET, PNF – consisting of three types of resistive stretching: lengthening, contracting the agonist; lengthening the agonist, contracting the antagonist; and lengthening the agonist, contracting agonist and antagonist)

15. ROM – passive (passive stretching, positional release)

16. Skin rolling

17. Stretching (manual)

18. Traction

19. Trigger point therapy

2. Principal treatment goals LIMITED by protocol (i.e., allowed only if represent less than 20% of an individual session)

Energy Work (e.g., Reiki, Polarity, Therapeutic touch, Zero Balancing)

Movement Education (Active Exercise Styles) (e.g., Alexander Technique, Feldenkrais Method, Aston Patterning)

3. Treatments proscribed by protocol


Asian bodywork (shiatsu or other meridian based massage)

Dietary supplements

Recipe techniques – although components of those may be acceptable

Sherman et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006 6:24   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-24

Open Data