Open Access Open Badges Research article

A survey of training and practice patterns of massage therapists in two US states

Karen J Sherman12*, Daniel C Cherkin13, Janet Kahn4, Janet Erro1, Andrea Hrbek5, Richard A Deyo6 and David M Eisenberg5

Author Affiliations

1 Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA

2 Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA

3 Departments of Family Medicine and Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA

4 Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405, USA

5 Harvard Medical School Osher Institute and Division for Research and Education in Complementary and Integrative Medical Therapies, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA

6 Departments of Medicine and Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005, 5:13  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-13

Published: 14 June 2005



Despite the growing popularity of therapeutic massage in the US, little is known about the training or practice characteristics of massage therapists. The objective of this study was to describe these characteristics.


As part of a study of random samples of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, we interviewed 226 massage therapists licensed in Connecticut and Washington state by telephone in 1998 and 1999 (85% of those contacted) and then asked a sample of them to record information on 20 consecutive visits to their practices (total of 2005 consecutive visits).


Most massage therapists were women (85%), white (95%), and had completed some continuing education training (79% in Connecticut and 52% in Washington). They treated a limited number of conditions, most commonly musculoskeletal (59% and 63%) (especially back, neck, and shoulder problems), wellness care (20% and 19%), and psychological complaints (9% and 6%) (especially anxiety and depression). Practitioners commonly used one or more assessment techniques (67% and 74%) and gave a massage emphasizing Swedish (81% and 77%), deep tissue (63% and 65%), and trigger/pressure point techniques (52% and 46%). Self-care recommendations, including increasing water intake, body awareness, and specific forms of movement, were made as part of more than 80% of visits. Although most patients self-referred to massage, more than one-quarter were receiving concomitant care for the same problem from a physician. Massage therapists rarely communicated with these physicians.


This study provides new information about licensed massage therapists that should be useful to physicians and other healthcare providers interested in learning about massage therapy in order to advise their patients about this popular CAM therapy.