Table 2

Economic outcomes to include in economic evaluation

Type of Cost

Examples

Perspectives in Which This Cost is Included


Direct costs: Medical

Intervention costs:

Practitioner fees

Diagnostic costs

Therapy costs

Service costs:

Facilities and equipment, including hospitalization or clinic/office costs Ancillary staff

Portion paid by health plan included in institutional perspective

Portion paid by patient included in individual perspective

All included in societal perspective

Direct costs: Non-medical

Transportation costs

Time off work for appointments/hospitalization

Usually all paid by the patient, so often included in individual perspective

All included in societal perspective

Indirect costs

Lost work productivity during recuperation

Lost leisure time

Child care costs

Costs to care givers

Usually all paid by the patient, so often included in individual perspective

All included in societal perspective

Intangible costs

Pain

Suffering

Grief

Not usually included as costs; instead, may be included in humanistic outcomes in cost-utility analysis


Summarized from similar tables in other references [1, 20, 22].

Herman et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005 5:11   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-11

Open Data