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Open Access Research article

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)

Samy A Selim12*, Mohammed E Adam13, Sherif M Hassan14 and Abdulrhman R Albalawi1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Aljouf University, P.O. 2014, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia

2 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, P.O. 41522, Ismailia, Egypt

3 West Kordufan University (WKU), Nuhud, Sudan

4 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:179  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-179

Published: 2 June 2014

Abstract

Background

Cupressus sempervirens is a medicinal plant traditional, its dried leaves are used in treatment of stomach pain, diabetes, inflammation, toothache, laryngitis and as contraceptive.

Methods

The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and determination chemical contents of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from Mediterranean C. sempervirens L. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. sempervirens was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system.

Results

A total of 20 constituents representing 98.1% of the oil were identified: α-pinene (48.6%), δ-3-carene (22.1%), limonene (4.6%) and α-terpinolene (4.5%) were the main components comprising 79.8% of the oil. The antimicrobial test results showed that the methanol extract of C. sempervirens strongly inhibited the growth of the test bacteria studied, except for yeast species while the Eo had moderate antibacterial, but no anti-candida activity. Klebsiella pneumoniae was proven to be the most susceptible against methanol extract. The exposure time of Eo and methanol extract for complete inhibition of cell viability of K. pneumoniae was found to be 250 μg at 30 min and 500 μg at 120 min, respectively. The antibiofilm potential of the samples was evaluated using methods of PVC microtiter and eradication on biomaterial. Visual results showed visible biofilm eradication from the surface of intravenous infusion tube at 500 μg of Eo and methanol extract.

Conclusions

The results presented here may suggest that the Eo and extracts of C. sempervirens possess antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, and therefore, can be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceuticals.

Keywords:
Mediterranean Cupressus sempervirens L; Methanol extract; Essential oil; GC-MS; Antimicrobial activity; Antibiofilm activity