Evaluation of in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of crude extracts of Artemisia abyssinica against aTrypanosoma congolense isolate
1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
2 Department of Pathology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box34, Debrezeit, Ethiopia
3 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 9086, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:117 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-117Published: 1 April 2014
African trypanosomiasis is a major disease of economic and public health importance affecting agricultural and human development. The search for alternative compounds against African trypanosomiasis is justified by various limitations of existing chemotherapeutic agents. This study was aimed at screening the hydromethanolic and dichloromethane (DCM) crude extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia abyssinica for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma congolense isolate in mice.
The aerial parts of the plant were extracted by maceration technique using dichloromethane and 80% methanol to obtain the corresponding crude extracts. The plant extracts at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were administered intraperitoneally daily for 7 days to mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Diminazene aceturate and distilled water were used as positive and as negative controls respectively. The level of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume, differential leukocyte counts and mean survival period were monitored.
The study showed that the DCM extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and the hydromethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg reduced parasitaemia (p < 0.05), ameliorated anaemia (p < 0.05), prevented body weight loss (p < 0.05) and resulted in significant increase in neutrophil levels (p < 0.05) and marked decrease in lymphocyte levels (p < 0.05) compared to the negative control.
This study established that aerial parts of A. abyssinica have antitrypanosomal potential and can be considered a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of tropical diseases caused by trypanosomes.