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Open Access Research article

Ardisia crispa roots inhibit cyclooxygenase and suppress angiogenesis

Dayang Erna Zulaikha Awang Hamsin13, Roslida Abdul Hamid1*, Latifah Saiful Yazan1, Che Norma Mat Taib2 and Looi Ting Yeong1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor

2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor

3 Department of Paraclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kuching 93150, Sarawak

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:102  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-102

Published: 19 March 2014

Abstract

Background

In our previous studies conducted on Ardisia crispa roots, it was shown that Ardisia crispa root inhibited inflammation-induced angiogenesis in vivo. The present study was conducted to identify whether the anti-angiogenic properties of Ardisia crispa roots was partly due to either cyclooxygenase (COX) or/and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity inhibition in separate in vitro studies.

Methods

Benzoquinonoid fraction (BQ) was isolated from hexane extract by column chromatography, and later analyzed by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Anti-angiogenic effect was studied on mouse sponge implantation assay. Ardisia crispa ethanolic rich fraction (ACRH), quinone-rich fraction (QRF) and BQ were screened for COX assay to evaluate their selectivity towards two isoforms (COX-1 and COX-2), The experiment on soy lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory assay was also performed to determine the inhibitory effect of ACRH, QRF and BQ on soy LOX.

Results

BQ was confirmed to consist of 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone, when compared with previous data. Antiangiogenesis study exhibited a reduction of mean vascular density (MVD) in both ACRH and QRF, compared to control. In vitro study showed that both ACRH and QRF inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2, despite COX-2 inhibition being slightly higher than COX-1 in BQ. On the other hand, both ACRH and QRF were shown to have poor LOX inhibitory activity, but not BQ.

Conclusions

In conclusion, ACRH and QRF might possibly exhibit its anti-angiogenic effect by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. However, both of them were shown to possess poor LOX inhibitory activity. On the other hand, BQ displayed selectivity to COX-2 inhibitory property as well as LOX inhibitory effect.

Keywords:
Ardisia crispa; COX inhibitor; LOX inhibitor; Soy lipoxygenase assay