|Summarized acupuncture interventions in the included studies|
|Author (year)||Acupuncture method (Fixed/partially individualized/individualized)*||Treatment rationale||Regimen||Acupuncture points**||Response sought||Co-interventions|
|Sun (2011)||MA, fixed||Modern acupuncture (hand acupuncture)||14 sessions (once daily for 14 d)||Ex-UE205||De-qi***||Functional exercise|
|Zheng (2010)||MA, fixed||Clinical experience||15 sessions (once daily for 5 d X 3)||LI15||De-qi||PRICE + EA|
|He (2010)||WA, individualized||TCM theory||n.r||Tender points||De-qi||Small needle-knife therapy + drug injection + rehabilitation|
|Wei (2010)||WA, individualized||TCM theory||10 sessions (once daily for 10 d)||Selected points from ST36, KI3, BL60, GB40, GB39, ST41, LR3 etc.||De-qi||Massage|
|Ni (2010)||MA, partially individualized||TCM theory||3 sessions (once daily for 3 d)||Ex-UE140 + additional points (pain sensitive points on the contralateral wrist joint)||De-qi||None|
|Tang (2010)||EA, partially individualized||TCM theory||10 sessions (once daily for 5 d X 2)||Ashi points(GB40, BL60, BL62, KI6) + additional points(ST41, GB39, GB34, ST36)||De-qi||Massage + IR|
|Luo (2009)||EA partially individualized||TCM theory||12 sessions (six times per 2 wks X 2)||ST41, BL60, GB40 + ashi points||De-qi||None|
|Zhou (2008)||WA, individualized||TCM theory||5 sessions (once daily for 5 d)||Tender points||n.r.||None|
|He (2006)||MA + WA, fixed||TCM theory clinical experience||15 sessions (once daily for 5 d X 3)||MA, WA : GB34 EA : GB39, GB40, ST41, BL60, BL62, GB43||De-qi||PRICE + EA|
|Zhao (2005)||EA, fixed||TCM theory||14 sessions (once per 2 days for 2 wks X 2)||Penetrating needling (GB40 and KI6)||De-qi||None|
|Wang (2005)||EA, partially individualized||Modern experimental study||5 sessions (once daily for 5 d)||ST41, GB40, BL62, BL60, GB39, ashi points||De-qi||None|
|Li (2002)||MA, partially individualized||n.r.||8 sessions (once daily for 8 d)||ST36, GB39, BL60, additional points (pain sensitive points on the contralateral Triple energizer meridian of wrist)||De-qi||Oral & topical HM|
|Ge (2000)||MA, individualized||n.r||10 sessions||n.r||n.r||oral HM|
|Yu (1999)||MA, fixed||TCM Theory||14 sessions (twice daily for 7 d)||ST36, GB39, KI3, BL60||n.r||Topical NSAIDs|
|Yu (1999)||MA, fixed||n.r||14 sessions (twice daily for 7 d)||ST36, GB39, KI3, BL60||n.r||Topical NSAIDs + ice pack|
|Yu (1996)||MA, fixed||n.r||7 sessions (once daily for 7 d)||ST36, GB39, KI3, BL60||n.r||Topical HM + ice pack|
|Ruan (1995)||MA, partially individualized||n.r||Once daily||Ex-LE8, Ex-LE9, BL62, GB39, GB40, BL60, KI6, SP6, KI2, ST41, ST36, GB34, SP9, ashi points||n.r||Massage|
*, Acupuncture method was classified into three categories based on the levels of individualization: ‘fixed’ means all patients receive the same treatment at all sessions, ‘partially individualized’ means using a fixed set of points to be combined with a set of points to be used flexibly, and ‘individualized’ means each patient receives a unique and evolving diagnosis and treatment ; **, Acupuncture point LI5 refers to 5th point of large intestine meridian and extra points have different nomenclature (e.g., Ex-UE3 means 3rd extra point in upper extremity). Ashi points mean local pain points; ***, De-qi means acupuncture-evoked specific sensations such as soreness, numbness, heaviness, and distention at the site of needle placement and these sensations may spread to other parts of the body.
d indicates days; EA, electroacupuncture; HM, herbal medicine; IR, infrared radiation; MA, manual acupuncture; n.r., not reported; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PRICE, protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation; TCM, traditional Chinese medicine; WA, warm acupuncture; wks, weeks.
Park et al.
Park et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:55 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-55