Table 2

Summarized acupuncture interventions in the included studies
Author (year) Acupuncture method (Fixed/partially individualized/individualized)* Treatment rationale Regimen Acupuncture points** Response sought Co-interventions
Sun (2011)[24] MA, fixed Modern acupuncture (hand acupuncture) 14 sessions (once daily for 14 d) Ex-UE205 De-qi*** Functional exercise
Zheng (2010)[25] MA, fixed Clinical experience 15 sessions (once daily for 5 d X 3) LI15 De-qi PRICE + EA
He (2010)[36] WA, individualized TCM theory n.r Tender points De-qi Small needle-knife therapy + drug injection + rehabilitation
Wei (2010)[37] WA, individualized TCM theory 10 sessions (once daily for 10 d) Selected points from ST36, KI3, BL60, GB40, GB39, ST41, LR3 etc. De-qi Massage
Ni (2010)[26] MA, partially individualized TCM theory 3 sessions (once daily for 3 d) Ex-UE140 + additional points (pain sensitive points on the contralateral wrist joint) De-qi None
Tang (2010)[38] EA, partially individualized TCM theory 10 sessions (once daily for 5 d X 2) Ashi points(GB40, BL60, BL62, KI6) + additional points(ST41, GB39, GB34, ST36) De-qi Massage + IR
Luo (2009)[27] EA partially individualized TCM theory 12 sessions (six times per 2 wks X 2) ST41, BL60, GB40 + ashi points De-qi None
Zhou (2008)[28] WA, individualized TCM theory 5 sessions (once daily for 5 d) Tender points n.r. None
He (2006)[29] MA + WA, fixed TCM theory clinical experience 15 sessions (once daily for 5 d X 3) MA, WA : GB34 EA : GB39, GB40, ST41, BL60, BL62, GB43 De-qi PRICE + EA
Zhao (2005)[30] EA, fixed TCM theory 14 sessions (once per 2 days for 2 wks X 2) Penetrating needling (GB40 and KI6) De-qi None
Wang (2005)[39] EA, partially individualized Modern experimental study 5 sessions (once daily for 5 d) ST41, GB40, BL62, BL60, GB39, ashi points De-qi None
Li (2002)[31] MA, partially individualized n.r. 8 sessions (once daily for 8 d) ST36, GB39, BL60, additional points (pain sensitive points on the contralateral Triple energizer meridian of wrist) De-qi Oral & topical HM
Ge (2000)[32] MA, individualized n.r 10 sessions n.r n.r oral HM
Yu (1999)[33] MA, fixed TCM Theory 14 sessions (twice daily for 7 d) ST36, GB39, KI3, BL60 n.r Topical NSAIDs
Yu (1999)[34] MA, fixed n.r 14 sessions (twice daily for 7 d) ST36, GB39, KI3, BL60 n.r Topical NSAIDs + ice pack
Yu (1996)[35] MA, fixed n.r 7 sessions (once daily for 7 d) ST36, GB39, KI3, BL60 n.r Topical HM + ice pack
Ruan (1995)[40] MA, partially individualized n.r Once daily Ex-LE8, Ex-LE9, BL62, GB39, GB40, BL60, KI6, SP6, KI2, ST41, ST36, GB34, SP9, ashi points n.r Massage

*, Acupuncture method was classified into three categories based on the levels of individualization: ‘fixed’ means all patients receive the same treatment at all sessions, ‘partially individualized’ means using a fixed set of points to be combined with a set of points to be used flexibly, and ‘individualized’ means each patient receives a unique and evolving diagnosis and treatment [15]; **, Acupuncture point LI5 refers to 5th point of large intestine meridian and extra points have different nomenclature (e.g., Ex-UE3 means 3rd extra point in upper extremity). Ashi points mean local pain points; ***, De-qi means acupuncture-evoked specific sensations such as soreness, numbness, heaviness, and distention at the site of needle placement and these sensations may spread to other parts of the body.

d indicates days; EA, electroacupuncture; HM, herbal medicine; IR, infrared radiation; MA, manual acupuncture; n.r., not reported; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PRICE, protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation; TCM, traditional Chinese medicine; WA, warm acupuncture; wks, weeks.

Park et al.

Park et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:55   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-55

Open Data