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Open Access Research article

Xiaochaihu Decoction attenuates the vicious circle between the oxidative stress and the ALP inactivation through LPS-catecholamines interactions in gut, liver and brain during CCI4+ethanol-induced mouse HCC

Xiao-qiu Liu1*, Xiao-jian Hu2, Hong-Xing Xu1 and Xiao-Ying Zeng1

Author Affiliations

1 Piwei Research Institutes, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, Guangdong, China

2 The Fourth People’s Hospital, Zhanjiang 524008, Guangdong, China

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:375  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-375

Published: 28 December 2013

Abstract

Background

Xiaochaihu Decoction (XCHD) prevents hepatocarcinogenesis in association with inhibition of oxidative stress. However, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-catecholamines (CA) interactions in gut, liver and brain may play an important role in the status of oxidative stress. This study was to assess whether XCHD attenuates the vicious circle between oxidative stress and ALP inactivation through LPS-CA interactions.

Methods

Hepatocellular carcinoma group (HCC) were induced by CCI4 + ethanol; HCC with Liver Depression and Spleen Deficiency (HCC + LDSD) were induced by squeezing tails (30 min/day), solitary breeding and intermittent fasting on the basis of HCC; XCHD was administered after 4 weeks of the HCC + LDSD. The degree of tissue injury were studied using a scoring system, and brain weights were measured. Peroxynitrite (ONOO), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid (VMA, CA metabolites), lipopolysaccharide-phosphate (LPS-P), ALP activity (ALP-A) and Concanavalin A (ConA)-binding rate of ALP (ALP-C) were determined by colorimetric method and lectin (ConA) affinity precipitation method.

Results

More injuries and ONOO, MDA, VMA, LPS-P, ALP-C were increased, ALP-A were decreased in the gut, liver and brain of HCC group, the most in HCC + LDSD group, after treatment with XCHD, all of which were improved. A positive association found between gut-liver-brain injury and ONOO, MDA, VMA, LPS-P, ALP-C, between ONOO, MDA, VMA, LPS-P and ALP-C in the gut, liver and brain, and a negative association found between gut-liver-brain injury and ALP-A, between ALP-A and ONOO, MDA, VMA, LPS-P, ALP-C in the gut, liver and brain.

Conclusions

XCHD can attenuates the vicious circle between the oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, N-glycan deficiency and inactivation of ALP through LPS-CA interactions in gut, liver and brain.

Keywords:
Xiaochaihu Decoction (XCHD); Ethanol; CCI4; Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); Liver depression and spleen deficiency (LDSD); Oxidative stress; Nitrosative stress; Lipopolysaccharid; Catecholamines; Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)