Table 2

Content of 2002, 2007, and 2012 NHIS complementary medicine questionnaires
Topic 2002 Enhancements/changes for 2007 Enhancements/changes for 2012
Practitioner-based therapies included in survey Acupuncture Chiropractic care replaced with chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation Added craniosacral therapy
Rreiki no longer distinguished from other energy healing therapies Modified list of traditional healers
Ayurveda Added movement therapies (Feldenkreis, Allowed participants to report whether chiropractor or osteopathic physician provided manipulation therapy
Alexander Technique, pilates, Trager
Biofeedback Psychophysical integration)
Added Traditional Healers (Curandero, Espirtista,
Chelation therapy Hierbero or Yerbera, Shaman, Botanica,
Native American Healer, Sobador)
Chiropractic care Removed folk medicine
Energy healing therapy/Reiki
Folk medicine (such as Curanderismo or Native American healing)
Hypnosis
Massage
Naturopathy
Self-care therapies included in survey Nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements (NVNMDS) (35 total) Included 44 NVNMDS on flashcard Pared down set of questions on vitamin and mineral supplements
High dose or megavitamin therapy Added vitamin and mineral supplements Expanded list of NVNMDS to 21 on flashcard and 98 in lookup table (119 total)
Homeopathic treatment Removed high dose or megavitamin therapies Classified meditation into 3 broad categories (mantra, mindfulness, and spiritual)
Special diets (vegetarian, macrobiotic, Atkins, Pritikin, Ornish, zone) Added South Beach to special diets Removed breathing exercises as separate therapy but included it within other therapies (hypnosis, biofeedback, meditation, guided imagery, progressive relaxation, yoga, tai chi, qi gong)
Yoga, tai chi, qi gong Pared down questions on prayer for your own health
Relaxation techniques (meditation, guided imagery, progressive relaxation, deep breathing exercises) Removed zone and South Beach from special diets
Prayer for your own health Removed prayer for your own health
Information collected for each therapy 12 month prevalence Added lifetime prevalence Added whether all or some of the costs were covered by health insurance
Frequency of use in past 12 months for practitioner-based therapies Added frequency of use in past 12 months for self- care therapies
Modified questions on out-of-pocket costs to allow for different ways of reporting
Use for specific health problem or condition Added out-of-pocket costs in past 12 months (per visit/purchase) Cost of self-help materials expanded to include both practitioner-based and self-help therapies
Reasons for use (conventional care would not help, conventional care was too expensive, combination of conventional care and complementary medicine would help, recommended by conventional provider, thought it would be interesting to try) Added whether also using conventional care for the same health problem as using complementary therapy Narrowed questions on reasons for use to the 3 therapies most important for health; did not ask for chelation and Ayurveda; asked collectively for movement, traditional healers, and special diets
Added additional reasons for using complementary therapy (energy, wellness, immune function, recommended by family, friends, or coworkers) Greatly expanded reasons for use to include wide range of wellness-related reasons, motivators, and outcomes
How much therapy helped health problem Added how much therapy helped most important reason for using it
Importance of use of therapy Added how much use of therapy helped the specific health problem
Disclosure to conventional provider
Whether insurance covered any of the Costs
Added importance of use of therapy
Modified disclosure to apply to personal care provider
Added reason for not disclosing use
Added sources of information about therapy
Additional information collected Numerous health conditions added to NHIS core Added additional health conditions to NHIS core Modified list of health conditions added to NHIS core based on prevalence data from prior surveys
Collected detailed follow-up information for up to two NVNMDS Added questions about having a personal health care provider and whether he/she is the same practitioner for complementary therapies
Expanded list of reasons for using NVNMDS and vitamin and mineral supplements Expanded child questionnaire to be almost identical to adult; limited to children age 4+
Added reasons didn’t use certain therapies (acupuncture, chiropractic, NVNMDS, yoga, and meditation)
Added child questionnaire with subset of items from adult survey (12 month prevalence, use for specific health problem, use of dietary supplements for sports)

Stussman et al.

Stussman et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:328   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-328

Open Data