Effect of oral administration of ethanolic extract of Vitex negundo on thioacetamide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
- Equal contributors
1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3 Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre, (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Block 3A, Institute of Postgraduate Studies Building, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:294 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-294Published: 30 October 2013
Oxidative stress due to abnormal induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules is believed to be involved in the etiology of many diseases. Evidences suggest that ROS is involved in nephrotoxicity through frequent exposure to industrial toxic agents such as thioacetamide (TAA). The current investigation was designed to explore the possible protective effects of the leaves of Vitex negundo(VN) extract against TAA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
Twenty four Sprague Dawleyrats were divided into four groups: (A) Normal control, (B) TAA (0.03% w/v in drinking water), (C) VN100 (VN 100 mg/kg + TAA) and (D) VN300 (VN 300 mg/kg + TAA). Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were measured,supraoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of renal tissue were assayed. Histopathological analysis together with the oxidative stress nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase p22phox in kidney sections were examined in all experimental groups.
Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were increased in TAA group as a result of the nephrotoxicity compared to the VN100 and VN300 groups where, the levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Renal MDA level was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the VN-treated groups with increased CAT and SOD activities compared to the TAA group. Light microscopic examination of renal tissues stained by H&E stain and Masson’s Trichrome for TAA-treated groups revealed severe histopathological changes, whereas specimens obtained from VN-treated groups showed only mild changes. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical results.
VN extract acts as a natural potent antioxidant to prevent ongoing TAA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, both biochemically and morphologically.