Effects of Allium victorialis leaf extracts and its single compounds on aldose reductase, advanced glycation end products and TGF-β1 expression in mesangial cells
1 Korean Medicine-Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), Daejeon, Republic of Korea
2 Developmnent Team for the New Drug of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea
3 Jeil Pharmaceutical CO., LTD, Yongin, Kyonggi-do, Republic of Korea
4 Present address: Korea Drug Development Fund, 21-1 Migeun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-020, Republic of Korea
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:251 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-251Published: 3 October 2013
Accumulating evidences suggest that aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors and advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation inhibitors may prevent chronic hyperglycemia-induced long-term complication in diabetes. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Allium species have been utilized in folk medicine throughout the world for the treatment of various physical disorders. However, the benefits of Allium victorialis (A. victorialis) against diabetic complications, especially nephropathy, have yet to be explored. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of the compounds isolated from A. victorialis leaf on diabetic nephropathy.
In vitro AR activity, AGEs formation, and AGE-receptor for AGEs (RAGE) binding in human RAGE (hRAGE)-overexpressing cells were tested. High glucose-induced transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) expression was also examined in mouse kidney mesangial cells (MMCs) cultured under high glucose.
Of the isolated eight compounds from A. victorialis leaf extracts tested, quercitrin exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effects on AR activity (IC50 value of 0.17 μM) and AGEs formation (IC50 value of 4.20 μM). Furthermore, quercitrin disrupted AGE-RAGE binding in a concentration-dependent manner in hRAGE-overexpressing cells. Additionally, of the eight compounds tested, ferulic acid significantly reduced high glucose-induced TGF-β1 expression and secretion in MMCs.
Our results suggest that active compounds isolated from A. victorialis leaf exhibit inhibitory effects on AR activity in rat lenses and AGE formation. Further, ferulic acid reduces TGF-β1 mRNA expression and secretion in MMCs under diabetic conditions. Thus, A. victorialis is a good candidate for the development of treatments for diabetic nephropathy.