Table 2

Participant characteristics (N = 48)
Characteristic
Age, mean (SD) 75.2 (8.0)
Female, % 77
Ethnicity, Hispanic % 4
Race, white % 96
Marital status, %
 Married or living with significant other 44
 Widowed 40
 Divorced or separated 15
 Never married 2
Education, %
 Some grade school or high school 17
 High school graduate 35
 Some college or training program 29
 College graduate 18
Employment, %
 Retired 85
 Employed 15
Overall health, %
 Excellent to very good 27
 Good 35
 Fair 29
 Poor 6
Overall pain in past 24 hours (0-10 NRS), mean (SD), range 4.7 (2.5), range 0-9
Back pain in past 24 hours (0-10 NRS), mean (SD), range 4.2 (2.4), range 0-9
Healthcare providers seen for back pain, %
 Doctor of chiropractic 69
 Medical doctor 60
 Physical therapist 38
 Doctor of osteopathy 17
 Massage therapist 8

SD Standard deviation.

NRS Numerical Rating Scale.

Lyons et al.

Lyons et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:225   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-225

Open Data