The measurement model of KDS-Yang. The EFA defined five domains but the SEM merged the fifth domain “abnormal water metabolism” to “abnormal urine excretion” for they were found to be highly correlated (>0.90), and this merge was justifiable by the theory. “Urine dripping” and “dizzy spells” were identified by the EFA to measure “Kidney-Qi deficiency” and “deficiency cold”, respectively, were trimmed off by the SEM; whereas these symptoms added to measure “abnormal urine excretion” and “Kidney-Qi deficiency”, respectively, were validated by the SEM. Of the KDSQ 24 items, 17 measure KDS-Yang, 9 are common items to KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang.
Chen et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:73 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-73