Figure 1.

The measurement model of KDS-Yin. “Thirsty at night” was identified to measure “Kidney-Essence deficiency” by the EFA was trimmed off by the SEM; whereas this symptom that added to measure “restlessness at night” was validated by the SEM. Of the KDSQ 24 items, 16 measure KDS-Yin, 9 are common items to KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang.

Chen et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:73   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-73
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