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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

Naveed Muhammad1, Muhammad Saeed1* and Haroon Khan2

Author affiliations

1 Department of Pharmacy University of Peshawar, 25120, Peshawar, Pakistan

2 Gandhara College of Pharmacy, Gandhara University, Peshawar, Pakistan

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Citation and License

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:59  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-59

Published: 2 May 2012

Abstract

Background

Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME).

Methods

VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p).

Results

In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23%) protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90%) at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg.

Conclusions

It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

Keywords:
Viola betonicifolia; Antipyretic; Analgesic; Anti-inflammatory