Table 1

Intrinsic antibacterial activity and resistant modifying ability of crude extract (250 μg/ml) in combination with novobiocin (1/8xMIC) againstAcinetobacter baumanniiATCC 19606
Botanical names Family name Part used %Growth inhibitiona± SDb Interpretationc
PE PE + NOV
1 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr. Rutaceae Fruit 22.10 ± 0.68 27.10 ± 1.38 No synergy
2 Ardisia colorata Roxb. Primulaceae Fruit 30.17 ± 2.56 39.00 ± 6.09 Synergy
3 Asclepias curassavica L. Asclepiadaceae Wood 40.81 ± 0.28 43.59 ± 1.78 No synergy
4 Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Apiaceae Whole 19.09 ± 1.06 23.93 ± 2.87 No synergy
5 Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet Lauraceae Wood 58.84 ± 1.37 59.92 ± 1.78 No synergy
Bark 55.62 ± 4.98 62.44 ± 2.91 No Synergy
6 Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm. Lauraceae Wood 29.72 ± 6.54 26.06 ± 5.21 No synergy
Bark 56.88 ± 2.14 63.31 ± 4.87 No synergy
7 Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae Rhizome 86.91 ± 2.64 88.78 ± 2.08 No synergy
8 Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe Zingiberaceae Rhizome 77.73 ± 0.48 79.59 ± 2.62 No synergy
9 Derris scandens Benth. Leguminosea Stem 49.01 ± 2.37 47.31 ± 3.84 No synergy
10 Dracaena loureiri Gagnep. Agavaceae Wood 30.08 ± 0.99 29.49 ± 3.19 No synergy
11 Dryopteris syrmatica (Willd.) Kuntze Dryopteridaceae Stem 17.59 ± 0.41 26.66 ± 5.32 Synergy
12 Eleutherine americana (Aubl.) Merr. ex K. Iridaceae Bulb 17.87 ± 1.89 22.26 ± 3.12 No synergy
13 Euphorbia thymifolia L. Euphorbiaceae Whole plant 53.64 ± 0.90 73.99 ± 0.88 Synergy
14 Garcinia mangostana L. Clusiaceae Pericarp 93.25 ± 3.65 90.48 ± 3.37 No synergy
15 Gymnopetalum cochinchinensis (Lour.) Kurz Cucurbitaceae Fruit 26.17 ± 0.59 32.45 ± 4.39 No synergy
16 Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC. Apocynaceae Bark 65.88 ± 0.11 94.04 ± 0.59* Synergy
17 Impatiens balsamina L. Balsaminaceae Stem 9.77 ± 0.30 12.40 ± 1.56 No synergy
18 Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosb. Sapotaceae Fruit 56.59 ± 1.02 63.06 ± 2.97 No synergy
19 Millingtonia hortensis L.f. Bignoniaceae Flower 28.97 ± 4.30 54.08 ± 0.83 Synergy
20 Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Rubiaceae Leaf 43.33 ± 2.40 66.15 ± 0.26 Synergy
21 Momordica charantia L. Cucurbitaceae Vine 22.26 ± 0.85 25.79 ± 3.10 No synergy
22 Morinda citrifolia L. Rubiaceae Fruit 16.96 ± 0.63 25.86 ± 1.22 Synergy
23 Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) R. Rao & Kammathy Commilinaceae Whole plant 16.42 ± 1.51 22.04 ± 1.67 No synergy
24 Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. Bignoniaceae Leaf 67.18 ± 1.59 71.30 ± 5.28 No synergy
25 Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer ex K. Heyne Fabaceae Flower 42.80 ± 0.43 47.83 ± 4.49 No synergy
Bark 78.26 ± 0.60 88.75 ± 6.10 Synergy
26 Piper betle L. Piperaceae Leaf 42.72 ± 0.13 39.92 ± 3.43 No synergy
27 Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Fruit 38.07 ± 1.96 42.24 ± 2.60 No synergy
Seed 29.07 ± 0.75 31.47 ± 3.27 No synergy
28 Piper retrofractum Vahl Piperaceae Fruit 44.02 ± 1.08 49.80 ± 4.19 No synergy
29 Piper sarmentosum Roxb Piperaceae Leaf 20.70 ± 0.88 25.02 ± 0.62 No synergy
30 Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Asteraceae Leaf 26.64 ± 0.97 53.59 ± 3.60* Synergy
31 Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae Leaf 71.24 ± 2.00 81.19 ± 1.50* Synergy
32 Punica granatum L. Puniceaceae Pericarp 72.58 ± 1.20 99.29 ± 0.63* Synergy
33 Quercus infectoria G.Olivier Fagaceae Gall 89.09 ± 0.15 88.77 ± 1.00 No synergy
34 Quisqualis indica L. Combretaceae Flower 79.22 ± 0.28 94.63 ± 2.62* Synergy
35 Rhizophora mucronata Lam. Rhizophoraceae Fruit 44.64 ± 0.59 53.35 ± 2.56 Synergy
Bark 42.68 ± 8.20 53.03 ± 4.95 Synergy
36 Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. Myrtaceae Stem 77.01 ± 1.28 81.81 ± 4.01 No synergy
37 Sandoricum indicum Cav. Meliaceae Root 65.24 ± 1.32 66.94 ± 2.13 No synergy
38 Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae Leaf 19.76 ± 1.55 25.03 ± 3.45 No synergy
39 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Combretaceae Fruit 74.79 ± 0.53 95.68 ± 1.14* Synergy
40 Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. Combretaceae Fruit 61.25 ± 0.42 94.33 ± 1.95* Synergy
41 Terminalia sp. Combretaceae Fruit 79.53 ± 0.24 95.92 ± 1.10* Synergy
42 Theobroma cacao L. Sterculiaceae Pericarp 17.35 ± 0.74 22.81 ± 0.68 No synergy
Seed 19.25 ± 1.08 29.61 ± 4.13 Synergy
43 Vitex trifolia L. Verbenaceae Leaf 22.12 ± 0.68 28.65 ± 3.57 No synergy
44 Xylocarpus granatum J. Koenig. Meliaceae Pericarp 52.39 ± 3.48 53.27 ± 1.91 No synergy
Seed 44.27 ± 5.13 54.55 ± 3.66 No synergy

Percentage of growth inhibition of novobiocin against A. buamannii ATCC 19606 was 6.67%.

aPercentage of growth inhibition in the present of plant extract (PE) and plant extract in combination with novobiocin (PE + NOV) against A. buamannii ATCC 19606.

bSD Standard Deviation.

cSynergy: (PE + NOV) > (PE) + (NOV); No synergy: (PE + NOV) < (PE) + (NOV) [6].

*P < 0.01: Significantly different from the effect of plant extract.

Phatthalung et al.

Phatthalung et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:56   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-56

Open Data