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Open Access Research article

Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production by chloroform fraction of Cudrania tricuspidata in RAW 264.7 macrophages

Gabsik Yang, Kyungjin Lee, Mihwa Lee, Inhye Ham and Ho-Young Choi*

Author affiliations

Department of Herbology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-Dong, Seoul, Dongdaemun-Gu, Republic of Korea

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Citation and License

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:250  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-250

Published: 10 December 2012

Abstract

Background

Cudrania tricuspidata extract is an important traditional herbal remedy for tumors, inflammation, gastritis, and liver damage and is predominantly used in Korea, China, and Japan. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract have not yet been conclusively proved.

Methods

In this study, we investigated the effects of the CHCl3 fraction (CTC) of a methanol extract of C. tricuspidata on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

Results

We observed that the protein expression levels of inducible NO synthase and COX-2 enzymes were markedly inhibited by CTC in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, CTC reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

Conclusions

Our results show that the C. tricuspidata extract could modulate macrophage-mediated inflammatory functions such as the overproduction of cytokines, NO, and PGE2. The CTC was found to be the active fraction in this context.

Keywords:
Cudrania tricuspidata; Nitric oxide; Prostaglandin E2; Lipopolysaccharide CHCl3 partitioned methanol extract of Cudrania tricuspidata; CTC, Lipopolysaccharide; LPS, prostaglandin E2; PGE2, nitric oxide; NO