Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production by chloroform fraction of Cudrania tricuspidata in RAW 264.7 macrophages
Department of Herbology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-Dong, Seoul, Dongdaemun-Gu, Republic of Korea
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:250 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-250Published: 10 December 2012
Cudrania tricuspidata extract is an important traditional herbal remedy for tumors, inflammation, gastritis, and liver damage and is predominantly used in Korea, China, and Japan. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract have not yet been conclusively proved.
In this study, we investigated the effects of the CHCl3 fraction (CTC) of a methanol extract of C. tricuspidata on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
We observed that the protein expression levels of inducible NO synthase and COX-2 enzymes were markedly inhibited by CTC in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, CTC reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
Our results show that the C. tricuspidata extract could modulate macrophage-mediated inflammatory functions such as the overproduction of cytokines, NO, and PGE2. The CTC was found to be the active fraction in this context.