The effects of ACA on the migration and apoptotic properties of HSC-4 human oral carcinoma cells. (A) Inhibition on migration rate by ACA as demonstrated using the wound healing assay with DMSO as a solvent control. (B) Quantification on open wound areas after 24 h of incubation using the TScratch software. (C) Induction of apoptosis by ACA through activation of caspase-3 and subsequent cleavage of full length PARP enzymes (116 kDa) into a small (24 kDa) and a large (89 kDa) subunit protein, with β-actin as a loading control. (D) Confirmation of apoptosis-mediated cell death in HSC-4 cells through the visualization of 150 to 200 bps laddering of genomic DNA upon ACA treatment as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation assay.
In et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:179 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-179