Table 2

Extract propertiesa
Extract Manufacturer Concentration (mg/mL)b Solvent Additional componentsc
Astragalus-Aq N/A 100 Water None
Astragalus-ETOH N/A 100 95% ethanol None
Astragalus-Com Gaia Herbs 500 50% ethanol None
Goldenseal-Aq N/A 100 Water None
Goldenseal-ETOH N/A 100 95% ethanol None
Goldenseal-Com Gaia Herbs 10d 65% ethanol None
Elderberry-G Gaia Herbs 380 Water C12H22O11, Acerola extract
Elderberry-365 365 Everyday Value 100 Water C3H8O3, C6H7KO2
Oregano-LE Gaia Herbs 333 65% ethanol None
Oregano oil North American Herb and Spice 1667 Olive oil None
Thyme Nature’s Answer 1000 15% ethanol C3H8O3
Calendula Eclectic Institute 945 Olive oil None
Colloidal silver Source Naturals 0.03 Water None

aAbbreviations: N/A (not applicable/extracts produced for this study); Aq (aqueous extract); ETOH (ethanol extract); Com (commercial extract); LE (leaf extract).

bStarting concentrations are those reported for commercial products, and were not normalized to maximize relevance to common use practices.

cRole of additional components: C12H22O11 (sucrose)-sweetener; C3H8O3 (glycerol)-texture, sweetener; C6H7KO2 (potassium sorbate)-antifungal preservative; Acerola extract-ascorbic acid supplementation, anti-inflammatory properties, additional antimicrobial properties28.

dConcentration reported by the manufacturer refers to total alkaloids rather than plant material.

Arjoon et al.

Arjoon et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:169   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-169

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