Bar-chart showing the concentration-dependentspasmogenic effect of thecrude extract ofA. spinosus(As.Cr) in the absenceand presence of atropine(0.1 μM) in isolatedguinea-pig ileum. The responses are shown as % of Ach (1 μM)-induced maximum contractile effect. Values are given as mean ± S.E.M., n = 4–5.
Chaudhary et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:166 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-166