Figure 3.

Concentration-dependent effect of (a)the crude extract ofA. spinosus(As.Cr) and (b) diltiazemon spontaneous, K+and carbachol (CCh)-induced contractionsin isolated rabbit jejunum. The stimulant effect of As.Cr on spontaneous contraction is taken in the absence and presence of atropine (0.1 μM), while the inhibitory effect of both As.Cr and diltiazem against CCh-induced contractions is taken in the absence and presence of propranolol (Prop., 1 μM). Values shown are mean ± S.E.M., n = 3–5.

Chaudhary et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:166   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-166
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