Figure 6 .
Proposed mechanism for PS-F2-stimulated macrophage activation. PS-F2 stimulates the activation of macrophage via the engagement of Dectin-1, CR3, and TLR4. The activation of these PRRs turned on the downstream signaling cascades involving Syk, JNK, p38, ERK and NK-κB, resulting in macrophage activation and TNF-α production.
Wang et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:119 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-119