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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

In vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer effects of Garcinia mangostana xanthones extract

Abdalrahim F A Aisha1*, Khalid M Abu-Salah2, Zhari Ismail3 and Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid14*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, 11800, Pulau Penang, Malaysia

2 The Chair of Cancer Targeting and Treatment, Biochemistry Department and King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Pulau Penang, Malaysia

4 Australian Institute for Nanotechnology and Bioengineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:104  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-104

Published: 20 July 2012

Abstract

Background

Xanthones are a group of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds with remarkable pharmacological effects such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities.

Methods

A xanthones extract (81% α-mangostin and 16% γ-mangostin), was prepared by crystallization of a toluene extract of G. mangostana fruit rinds and was analyzed by LC-MS. Anti-colon cancer effect was investigated on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity, and effect on cell signalling pathways. The in vivo anti-colon cancer activity was also investigated on subcutaneous tumors established in nude mice.

Results

The extract showed potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration 6.5 ± 1.0 μg/ml), due to induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Three key steps in tumor metastasis including the cell migration, cell invasion and clonogenicity, were also inhibited. The extract and α-mangostin up-regulate the MAPK/ERK, c-Myc/Max, and p53 cell signalling pathways. The xanthones extract, when fed to nude mice, caused significant growth inhibition of the subcutaneous tumor of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells.

Conclusions

Our data suggest new mechanisms of action of α-mangostin and the G. mangostana xanthones, and suggest the xanthones extract of as a potential anti-colon cancer candidate.