Table 2

Sleep Diary and Daytime Function Measures by Treatment Group

Placebo

N = 17

Mean ± SD

Chamomile

N = 17

Mean ± SD


Measure

Baseline

Week 4

Baseline

Week 4

Effect Sizea

P-valueb


Subjective Sleep Measures


Sleep Latency (min)

33.9 ± 32.2

32.9 ± 4.3

50.3 ± 53.0

34.2 ± 6.6

0.47

0.41

Wake After Sleep Onset (min)

44.6 ± 46.3

25.9 ± 24.4

49.0 ± 36.6

32.0 ± 27.3

0.06

0.51

Awakenings (#)

1.6 ± 1.1

1.3 ± 0.7

2.2 ± 1.3

1.4 ± 0.6

0.61

0.46

Total Sleep Time (hrs)

5.8 ± 1.0

6.5 ± 1.0

5.9 ± 1.7

6.1 ± 1.2

0.59

0.07

Sleep Qualityc

3.0 ± 0.7

3.3 ± 0.5

2.7 ± 0.7

3.1 ± 0.5

0.23

0.86

Sleep Efficiency (%)

76.7 ± 12.0

83.3 ± 7.7

71.9 ± 16.7

77.5 ± 12.9

0.09

0.21

ISI Scored

13.9 ± 3.6

11.6 ± 4.5

15.1 ± 3.7

11.9 ± 4.7

0.28

0.60

PSQI Total Scored

9.5 ± 2.1

7.1 ± 2.7

10.1 ± 2.5

7.5 ± 3.3

0.10

0.88


Daytime Functioning Measures


FSSd

30.9 ± 9.1

32.3 ± 10.0

32.1 ± 10.6

27.9 ± 9.3

0.55

0.11

BDId

6.0 ± 6.0

4.8 ± 5.0

3.2 ± 1.6

2.4 ± 2.4

0.31

0.60

STAI

Trait Subscaled

37.5 ± 11.3

40.8 ± 15.5

36.3 ± 10.1

35.5 ± 11.0

0.57

0.45


aEffect size is calculated using Cohen's d

bP-value is derived from a general linear model adjusted for group assignment and baseline value of measure

cSleep quality rated from 1 (very poor) to 5 (very good)

d BDI = Beck Depression Inventory, a score of ≥ 14 is consistent with mild depression, a score of ≥ 20 is consistent with moderate depression and a score ≥ 29 indicates severe depression; ISS = Insomnia Severity Index, 0-7 no clinically significant insomnia, 8-14 is subthreshold insomnia, 15-21 moderate clinical insomnia and ≥ 22 severe clinical insomnia; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, scores range from 0-21 with ≥ 6 suggests poor sleep quality; STAI = State Trait Anxiety Inventory, scores range from 20 (no to mild anxiety) to 80 (severe anxiety); FSS = Fatigue Severity Scale, scores range from 9-59 with a score of ≥ 36 indicating significant fatigue and impairment in daytime functioning.

Zick et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011 11:78   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-78

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