Table 1

Plant sources and their traditional uses

Plants Name

Family

Parts used

Hypoglycemic and medicinal properties

Ref.


Adansonia digitata L.

Bombacaceae

Leaves

Lowers blood glucose level due to insulin like effect on peripheral tissues; by promoting glucose uptake and metabolism or by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis

[18]

Allium sativum L.

Alliaceae

Rhizomes

Lowers blood pressure and improves lipid profile, decreases serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, increases serum insulin levels

[40]

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

Liliace

Leaf Gel

Hypoglycemic activity, decreases fasting glucose levels, hepatic transaminases, plasma and liver cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids. Improves plasma insulin level. Restores normal levels of LDL and HDL and cholesterol Reduces levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide and have hypocholesterimic efficacy, diminishes degenerative changes observed in kidney tissues

[41]

Casia fistula L.

Caesalpiniaceae

Leaves

Hypoglycemic activity decreases blood glucose level

[19]

Catharanthus roseus (L.). G. Don

Apocynaceae

Leaves

Reduces blood glucose by enhancing secretion of insulin from β-cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism

[42]

Cinnamomum verum Persl.

Lauraceae

Bark

Reduces the blood glucose and elevates the plasma insulin level.

[43]

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

Cucurbitacea

Fruit

Reduces blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin content. C. indica extracts lowers blood glucose by depressing its synthesis, depression of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose1,6, bisphosphatase and enhancing glucose oxidation by shunt pathway through activation of iglucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase

[44]

Linum usitatisumum L.

Linaceae

Seeds

Reduces fasting blood sugar levels, total cholesterol; reduces carbohydrate absorption from gut and clinical symptoms of diabetes associated with dyslipidamia.

[20]

Mangifera indica L.

Anacardiaceae

Fruit, Leaves

Reduces glucose absorption in type 2 diabetes. Stimulates glycogenesis in liver causing reduction in blood glucose level.

[45]

Morus alba L.

Moraceae

Leaves

Antiphlogistic, diuretic, expectorant and antidiabetic. Increases the β-cell number in diabetic islets. Reduces levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Decreases triglycerides, cholesterol and VLDL to normal levels in type II DM patients. Restores elevated levels of blood urea.

[46]

Nerium oleander L.

Apocynaceae

Leaves

Clorogenic acid, querecetin and cathechin induce post prandial hyperglycemia by acting as α-glucosidase inhibitors.

[21]

Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

Laminaceae

Leaves

Lowers blood glucose level, modulates cellular antioxidant defense system. Improves β cell function and enhances insulin secretion. Inhibits absorption of glucose from the intestine

[47]

Piper nigrum L.

Piperaceae

Seeds

Reduces glucose and serum lipid levels

[48]

Terminalia chebula Retz.

Combretaceae

Fruit

Decreases blood glucose levels by enhancing secretion of insulin from β cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism. Inhibits advanced glycosylation end products, which contribute to renal damage.

[49]

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers

Menispermaceae

Stem

Decreases blood glucose level through glucose metabolism. It exhibits inhibitory effect on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia.

[50]

Trigonella foenum-graceum L.

Fabaceae

Seeds

Decreases s post prandial blood glucose level.

[51]

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Zingiberaceae

Rhizome

Lowers plasma glucose level

[52]


P et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011 11:5   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-5

Open Data