Table 3

Phase 1: Variables available from EMR for Clustering/Matching Patients

Types/duration of pain condition(s)

Pain severity

Comorbid conditions (e.g., depression, obesity)

Demographics (age, gender, race, marital status, employment status)

Receipt of pain-related disability compensation

Overall healthcare service use

Prescription medications received (e.g., short and long-acting opiates, sedatives, hypnotics, and antidepressants)

Pain-related procedures received (injections, imaging, and surgeries)

Pain-related visits (primary and specialty care including physical therapy)

ER/urgent care visits

Prior use of health insurance reimbursed CAM

Characteristics of primary care provider (e.g., degree [MD, DO, NP] frequency of CAM referrals, gender)


DeBar et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011 11:118   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-118

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