Table 3

Effects of Tai Chi on psychological health (19 non-meta-analyzed studies)

Reference

Control Group(s)

Psychological Status Measured

P-value

Main Conclusions


5 Randomized Controlled Trials


Galantino et al, 2005

1.Aerobic exercise

2.Usual activity

Anxiety (POMS)

0.005

Tai Chi decreased tension-anxiety


Mustian et al, 2004

Psychosocial support therapy

Self-Esteem (RSE)

0.01

Tai Chi improved self-esteem


Kutner et al, 1997

1. Education control

2.Balance training

Self-Esteem (RSE)

NS

Tai Chi improved self-esteem vs. exercise control and vs. education & balance training


Brown et al, 1995

1.Moderate intensity walk

2.Low intensity walk

3.Low intensity walk & relaxation

4.Usual lifestyle behaviors

Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (STAI, POMS, Tukey multiple comparison test, LSES, PANAS) Self-Esteem (RSE, SPES and BCS)

<0.05

Tai Chi improved anxiety, depression, general mood and mood disturbance and negative affect (women)


NS

Tai Chi improved self-esteem in physical competence (men and women)


Jin, 1992

1.TC meditation

2.Brisk walking

3.Neutral reading

Stress (Salivary Cortisol Levela) Anxiety (STAI Y-1) Mood and Emotion (POMS)

<0.005

Tai Chi reduced anxiety vs. neutral reading group


<0.001

All groups reduced stress level and improved total mood disturbance


7 Non-Randomized Comparison Studies


Lee et al, 2007

Usual activity

Self-Esteem (SSES-Chinese Version)

<0.001

Tai Chi improved self-esteem


Wall, 2005

Self-comparison

Anxiety (Written subjective statements)

ND

Students reported feeling calmer, peaceful, relaxed & experienced well-being & improved sleep


Mills et al, 2000

Self-comparison

Anxiety, Depression (POMS)

NS

Tai Chi decreased tension-anxiety


<0.01

Tai Chi decrease depression-dejection


Gibb et al, 1997

Self-comparison

Mood and Emotion (Biographical Self Reflection Program)

ND

Tai Chi improved structured reminiscence with facilitated focused & insightful thinking


Fu et al, 1996

Self-comparison

Mood and Emotion (Records from self- report program)

ND

Tai Chi decreased total mood disturbance


Jin, 1989

Self-comparison

Stress (Salivary Cortisol Level) a Depression (POMS) Anxiety (STAI) Mood and Emotion (POMS)

<0.01

Tai Chi decreased stress during and after Tai Chi


<0.001

Tai Chi decreased anxiety and total mood disturbance during and after TC


<0.05

Tai Chi decreased depression during and after Tai Chi


Mack, 1980

Self-comparison

Mood and Emotion (no test reported)

ND

Tai Chi improved mood status


7 Observational Studies


Chen et al, 2006

Self-comparison

Mood and Emotion (Self-design, 10 items)

ND

Tai Chi improved mood status & psychological health


Wang & Wang, 2004

1. >30 min, >3×/wk (regular Tai Chi & Tai Chi sword)

2. some activity, <30 min, <3×/wk

3. other activity, >30 min, >3×/wk

Stress (Chinese Psychological Stress Scores)

<0.01

Tai Chi decreased psychological stress vs. some activity (<30 min, <3×/wk)


NS

Tai Chi decreased psychological stress vs. other activity (>30 min, >3×/wk)


Yang et al, 2004

Routine activity

Anxiety (Zung SAS) Depression (Zung SDS)

<0.01

Tai Chi decreased anxiety and depression scores


Bond et al, 2002

1.Sedentary

2.Moderate aerobic activity

Anxiety (STAI)

<0.05

Tai Chi and moderate aerobic activity decreased state anxiety vs. sedentary group


Chen et al, 2001

No exercise control group

Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (POMS-SF)

0.000

Tai Chi decreased tension-anxiety, depression-dejection and total mood disturbance


Liu & Zhang, 2000

General population

Anxiety, Depression (Self-Rating Scale-90)

<0.01

Tai Chi decreased anxiety and depression scales


Long et al, 2000

Routine activity

Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (POMS)

<0.01

Tai Chi decreased anxiety, depression scales and total mood disturbance


Abbreviations: ND = no data; NS = not statistically significant; DASS 21 = Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales 21 item questionnaire; POMS = Profile of Mood States; RSE = Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; STAI = State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; LSES = Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale; PANAS = Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; SPS = Self-Perceived Stress score; SPES = Sonstroem Physical Examination Scale; BCS = Body Cathexis Score; SSES = State Self-Esteem Scale; FAHI = Functional Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection; SAS = Self-Rating Anxiety Scale; SDS = Self-Rating Depression Scale. a Objective measure.

Wang et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010 10:23   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-23

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