Table 3

Unadjusted and adjusted percentage of women who experienced various symptoms of anxiety, symptoms of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and of psychotic disorders, by exposure to intimate partner violence, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondent, partners characteristics, and exposure to domestic abuse in the parental household
Symptoms of anxiety Symptoms of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures Symptoms of psychotic disorders
Feelings of fear for no apparent reason Scares easily Headaches of great intensity Convulsions, attacks with tongue biting Hears voices that others do not hear
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage
(CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI)
Intimate partner violence
  No abuse (reference) 45.6 46.0 62.8 63.3 51.0 50.8 6.5 6.4 11.2 11.5
(43.9-47.3) (44.3-47.7) (61.1-64.6) (61.6-65.0) (49.3-52.7) (49.1-52.4) (5.7-7.4) (5.6-7.2) (10.1-12.3) (10.4-12.7)
  Psychol. abuse only 49.0* 49.7* 67.0** 67.0* 58.5*** 58.9** 8.3* 8.6** 13.9* 13.5
(46.4-51.6) (50.8-56.2) (64.7-69.4) (64.6-69.4) (55.9-61.1) (56.4-61.5) (6.7-9.8) (7.0-10.2) (12.0-15.7) (11.7-15.3)
  Physical abuse (no sexual) 54.9*** 53.5*** 67.6** 66.6 58.0*** 58.3*** 9.3** 9.4*** 15.7*** 15.3**
(52.1-57.7) (50.8-56.2) (64.9-70.3) (63.9-69.4) (55.3-60.7) (55.6-60.9) (7.7-10.8) (7.9-11.0) (13.4-17.9) (13.0-17.5)
  Sexual abuse¥ 61.2*** 59.3*** 72.8*** 71.8*** 66.9*** 65.5*** 13.1*** 12.4*** 25.2*** 24.0***
(56.9-65.5) (55.1-63.7) (68.5-77.1) (67.6-76.0) (62.4-71.4) (61.1-69.9) (9.9-16.4) (9.2-15.6) (21.0-29.3) (20.1-27.9)
Respondent experienced physical abuse in childhood
  No (reference) 47.2 64.0 52.1 7.0 12.2
(44.9-50.9) (61.8-66.1) (49.9-54.4) (5.7-8.3) (10.6-13.8)
  Yes 49.9 65.9 56.1** 8.2 14.1
(48.4-51.4) (64.4-67.3) (54.7-57.5) (7.4-9.0) (13.0-15.2)
Respondent experienced psychological abuse in childhood
  No (reference) 49.3 64.8 55.3 8.0 14.0
(47.7-50.9) (63.2-66.4) (53.7-56.9) (7.1-8.9) (12.8-15.2)
  Yes 49.0 66.0 54.5 7.7 13.0
(47.1-50.9) (64.2-67.8) (52.6-56.3) (6.7-8.7) (11.7-14.3)
Respondent reports father beat her mother
  No (reference) 48.4 64.3 54.2 7.0 12.7
(46.6-50.2) (62.6-66.0) (52.3-56.0) (6.1-8.0) (11.3-14.1)
  Yes/Don’t know 49.8 66.2 55.6 8.5* 14.3
(48.0-51.2) (64.6-67.8) (53.9-57.4) (7.5-9.5) (13.1-15.4)
Region
  La Paz (reference) 53.3 69.9 54.3 6.9 13.5
(50.5-56.1) (67.6-72.3) (51.9-56.8) (5.6-8.1) (11.4-15.5)
  Chuquisaca 43.0** 60.7*** 54.5 5.2 6.7***
(37.9-48.2) (56.4-65.0) (48.0-61.0) (3.7-6.8) (4.7-8.7)
  Cochabamba 50.8 66.4* 61.0** 11.3*** 15.2
(48.1-53.6) (63.3-69.5) (58.0-64.0) (9.0-13.7) (13.3-17.2)
  Oruro 49.0 63.3** 50.1 6.5 6.8***
(44.5-53.4) (59.5-67.2) (44.6-55.6) (4.7-8.3) (4.8-8.8)
  Potosí 46.1 58.6*** 45.8*** 7.7 10.7
(41.5-50.6) (54.6-62.5) (42.2-49.3) (5.5-9.7) (8.2-13.2)
  Tarija 51.9 68.5 58.3 7.6 17.5*
(48.6-55.2) (64.6-72.4) (55.2-61.4) (5.5-9.7) (14.5-20.5)
  Santa Cruz 45.6*** 64.8** 55.0 6.7 16.1
(43.0-48.1) (61.8-67.7) (52.1-57.9) (5.4-8.0) (13.8-18.4)
  Beni 46.3* 51.3*** 58.6 11.6** 12.2
(41.0-51.7) (45.9-56.6) (54.2-63.0) (8.3-14.8) (9.4-14.9)
  Pando 44.3** 61.3** 59.6 12.9*** 21.1**
(39.6-49.0) (56.5-66.1) (54.4-64.6) (9.4-16.3) (16.6-25.7)
Residence
  Urban (reference) 48.5 64.9 53.1 6.9 13.7
(46.5-50.5) (62.8-66.9) (50.7-55.4) (5.8-8.0) (12.2-15.2)
  Rural 50.1 66.0 58.0 9.0 13.4
(47.2-53.1) (63.4-68.6) (54.7-61.2) (7.5-10.6) (11.4-15.4)
Education
  None (reference) 53.1 69.4 61.1 7.5 11.3
(47.6-58.6) (64.4-74.4) (55.4-66.7) (5.1-9.9) (7.7-14.9)
  Primary 51.0 67.5 58.9 8.2 14.7
(49.0-53.0) (65.5-66.7) (56.7-61.1) (7.2-9.3) (13.2-16.3)
  Secondary 48.6 64.2 51.3** 7.5 13.1
(46.0-51.2) (61.7-66.7) (48.6-54.0) (6.0-9.0) (11.2-14.9)
  Higher 41.3** 58.2** 45.3*** 6.8 10.9
(36.3-46.4) (53.5-62.9) (40.4-50.3) (4.3-9.4) (7.5-14.3)
SES
  First (reference) 50.1 66.6 57.9 9.1 11.5
(46.3-53.9) (62.8-70.4) (53.9-61.9) (7.0-11.1) (9.1-14.0)
  Second 49.2 66.9 52.4** 7.7 14.4*
(45.9-52.4) (63.8-70.1) (48.2-56.7) (6.2-9.3) (12.1-16.8)
  Third 51.4 67.2 55.3 7.9 15.1
(48.7-54.1) (64.6-69.8) (52.6-58.0) (6.3-9.6) (12.9-17.2)
  Fourth 49.1 65.3 55.2 6.5 14.3
(46.2-52.0) (62.5-68.0) (52.1-58.4) (4.9-8.2) (12.3-16.3)
  Fifth 45.8 60.8 54.0 7.8 12.0
(42.2-49.5) (57.6-64.0) (50.1-57.9) (5.7-9.9) (9.5-14.5)
Work status
  Not working (reference) 47.8 65.5 55.4 7.0 12.4
(45.7-49.9) (63.4-67.6) (53.3-57.4) (6.0-8.1) (11.0-13.8)
  Working 49.8 65.2 54.7 8.3 14.2*
(48.3-51.4) (63.7-66.7) (53.3-56.2) (7.4-9.2) (13.1-15.3)
Age
  15-24 (reference) 49.4 66.2 47.3 5.8 13.2
(44.9-53.8) (61.8-70.6) (43.1-51.5) (6.8-8.5) (10.3-16.0)
  25-34 50.1 65.5 54.8** 7.2 14.2
(47.7-52.4) (63.3-67.7) (52.5-57.2) (6.1-8.3) (12.6-15.7)
  35-44 47.1 64.5 57.4** 8.6 13.0
(44.4-49.8) (62.0-67.1) (54.7-60.1) (7.1-10.1) (11.1-14.9)
  45-49 51.5 65.4 59.8** 11.3* 13.9
(46.8-56.2) (61.2-69.7) (55.1-64.4) (8.2-14.5) (10.4-17.3)
Marital status
  Married (reference) 49.6 65.3 54.6 7.7 13.3
(48.0-51.3) (63.5-67.1) (43.0-56.2) (6.8-8.5) (12.2-14.5)
  Cohabiting 48.4 65.3 54.7 8.1 13.9
(46.3-50.4) (63.1-67.5) (54.5-57.5) (6.9-9.4) (12.4-15.4)
Partner’s age
  14-24 (reference) 50.5 67.2 54.8 9.7 18.8
(44.9-56.2) (62.0-72.4) (49.6-60.0) (6.2-13.3) (13.8-23.9)
  25-34 49.5 65.3 53.0 8.2 13.7*
(46.8-52.2) (62.9-67.8) (50.2-55.8) (6.5-9.9) (11.8-15.6)
  35-44 47.4 64.2 55.5 8.0 12.5*
(47.1-52.0) (62.0-66.4) (53.3-57.7) (6.9-9.1) (10.9-14.0)
  45+ 47.4 66.1 57.3 6.8 12.7
(43.4-51.5) (62.2-69.9) (53.4-61.2) (5.1-8.5) (10.1-15.3)
Partner’s age, relative to respondent
  Same age or younger (ref.) 50.3 65.9 57.2 6.8 14.3
(47.7-52.9) (63.4-68.4) (54.8-59.6) (5.6-8.0) (12.6-16.0)
  1-5 years older 49.5 65.9 53.7* 7.7 12.8
(47.6-51.4) (64.0-67.7) (51.9-55.4) (6.7-8.7) (11.6-14.0)
  6+ years older 47.4 63.7 54.6 9.4* 14.0
(44.7-50.1) (61.2-66.3) (51.7-57.5) (7.7-11.0) (12.1-16.0)
Partner’s education
  None (reference) 47.9 63.7 53.2 7.0 16.9
(38.8-57.0) (54.7-72.7) (43.9-62.4) (1.8-12.2) (8.3-25.6)
  Primary 50.1 65.7 55.4 8.7 14.7
(47.6-52.7) (63.5-67.8) (53.0-57.8) (7.4-10.0) (13.0-16.4)
  Secondary 50.7 66.5 55.1 7.0 12.7
(48.5-52.8) (64.3-68.8) (53.0-57.1) (6.0-8.1) (11.1-14.3)
  Higher 43.8 62.3 53.8 7.0 12.3
(39.5-48.1) (58.6-66.1) (49.7-58.0) (5.0-9.1) (9.4-15.1)
Partner’s education compared to respondent
  Wife is more educated (reference) 47.9 63.6 55.2 7.5 12.2
(44.9-50.9) (60.9-66.4) (52.4-58.0) (5.9-9.0) (10.3-14.1)
  Same level of education 46.9 63.5 54.6 6.7 13.8
(44.4-49.4) (61.0-65.9) (52.1-57.0) (5.4-8.0) (12.0-15.5)
  Husband is more educated 50.6 66.8 55.0 8.4 14.1
(48.7-52.6) (65.0-68.6) (53.1-56.9) (7.3-9.5) (12.7-15.4)

*p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001.

Ψ Respondents who experienced sexual abuse may also have experienced psychological and/or physical abuse.

Meekers et al.

Meekers et al. BMC Women's Health 2013 13:28   doi:10.1186/1472-6874-13-28

Open Data