Table 2

Unadjusted and adjusted percentage of women experiencing various symptoms of depression, by exposure to intimate partner violence, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondent, partners characteristics, and exposure to domestic abuse in the parental household
Symptoms of depression
Feels tired all the time Cries easily Difficulty doing daily activities Difficulty making decisions
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage
(CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI)
Intimate partner violence
  No abuse (reference) 49.8 49.9 72.1 72.7 28.0 28.0 42.1 42.7
(48.1-51.6) (48.2-51.6) (70.6-73.7) (71.2-74.2) (26.3-29.7) (26.4-29.7) (40.3-43.8) (41.0-44.4)
  Psychol. abuse only 55.9*** 57.5*** 74.6 74.2 33.6*** 34.0*** 50.8*** 50.8***
(53.6-58.3) (55.2-59.8) (72.2-77.0) (71.8-76.6) (31.3-35.9) (31.7-36.3) (48.2-53.3) (48.2-53.4)
  Physical abuse (no sexual) 56.3*** 55.5** 79.4*** 78.6*** 34.1*** 34.1*** 51.9*** 50.7***
(53.6-58.9) (52.9-58.1) (77.1-81.7) (76.3-80.9) (31.4-36.7) (31.4-36.8) (49.1-54.7) (47.9-53.6)
  Sexual abuse¥ 68.3*** 66.4*** 86.3*** 85.9*** 43.8*** 42.4*** 63.8*** 62.4***
(64.0-72.5) (62.2-70.6) (83.1-89.6) (82.4-89.3) (39.0-48.7) (37.6-47.1) (59.5-68.2) (58.2-66.6)
Respondent experienced physical abuse in childhood
  No (reference) 52.3 72.1 31.0 45.9
(50.1-54.5) (70.1-74.0) (28.7-33.3) (43.5-48.3)
  Yes 54.3 76.2*** 31.6 47.9
(52.9-55.7) (75.0-77.5) (30.2-33.1) (46.4-49.4)
Respondent experienced psychological abuse in childhood
  No (reference) 55.4 75.7 31.9 48.7
(54.0-56.9) (74.3-77.1) (30.2-33.6) (47.0-50.3)
  Yes 51.4** 74.1 30.8 45.6*
(49.5-53.4) (72.4-75.8) (29.0-32.7) (43.5-47.6)
Respondent reports father beat mother
  No (reference) 53.3 73.2 30.9 44.1
(51.5-55.1) (71.6-74.8) (29.3-32.5) (42.3-45.9)
  Yes/Don’t know 54.1 76.7** 31.9 50.1***
(52.4-55.8) (75.3-78.0) (30.2-33.6) (48.4-51.8)
Region
  La Paz (reference) 62.3 78.9 34.6 51.8
(59.8-64.7) (76.6-81.2) (31.9-37.4) (49.3-54.3)
  Chuquisaca 44.8*** 80.2 24.8*** 48.3
(39.6-50.0) (77.3-83.0) (20.6-29.0) (44.3-52.3)
  Cochabamba 57.8* 77.0 35.6 47.0*
(54.8-60.9) (74.7-79.4) (32.3-39.0) (43.7-50.4)
  Oruro 49.0*** 73.5** 27.2** 47.3*
(45.3-52.6) (70.2-76.8) (23.5-31.0) (43.5-51.0)
  Potosí 54.5*** 65.3*** 27.4** 43.8**
(51.0-57.9) (61.6-68.9) (23.6-31.3) (38.5-49.1)
  Tarija 53.1*** 73.7* 38.1 55.2
(49.6-56.6) (70.2-77.2) (34.9-41.3) (51.6-58.7)
  Santa Cruz 45.9*** 73.2** 28.8** 44.0***
(43.1-48.7) (70.6-75.9) (26.3-31.4) (41.8-46.2)
  Beni 33.9*** 70.5*** 21.3*** 32.3***
(28.1-39.6) (66.8-74.1) (17.5-25.1) (27.0-37.6)
  Pando 54.2** 66.8*** 31.3 46.5
(48.8-59.5) (61.9-71.8) (26.4-36.2) (39.4-53.5)
Residence
  Urban (reference) 54.6 75.1 31.5 47.4
(52.5-56.6) (73.4-76.9) (29.4-33.5) (45.3-49.4)
  Rural 52.4 74.8 31.4 47.3
(49.5-55.3) (72.5-77.2) (28.5-34.3) (46.2-50.4)
Education
  None (reference) 57.7 76.2 34.0 45.3
(52.1-63.3) (71.3-81.2) (28.9-39.2) (39.6-51.0)
  Primary 57.8 74.4 33.5 49.7
(55.7-59.9) (72.5-76.3) (31.6-35.5) (44.1-48.9)
  Secondary 50.2* 77.2 28.9 47.7
(47.6-52.9) (74.9-79.4) (26.4-31.4) (45.0-50.4)
  Higher 44.1** 72.4 26.9 38.3
(39.4-48.9) (68.2-76.7) (22.8-31.0) (33.5-43.1)
SES
  First quintile (reference) 57.4 72.6 30.4 45.1
(53.1-61.7) (69.2-76.1) (26.6-34.2) (41.0-49.2)
  Second quintile 55.2 74.4 34.1 46.6
(51.7-58.8) (71.6-77.3) (30.8-37.3) (43.6-49.7)
  Third quintile 55.7 75.9 35.3 50.0
(53.0-58.3) (73.6-78.3) (32.4-38.1) (47.3-52.6)
  Fourth quintile 53.1 78.4* 33.0 50.6
(50.2-56.1) (75.8-80.9) (30.0-36.0) (47.5-53.8)
  Fifth quintile 47.4** 73.2 23.6* 43.4
(43.5-51.2) (69.9-76.6) (20.2-26.9) (39.9-47.0)
Work status
  Not working (reference) 51.6 75.1 29.8 46.5
(49.5-53.7) (73.3-76.9) (27.8-31.8) (44.3-48.6)
  Working 54.8 75.0 32.3 47.8
(53.3-56.3) (73.6-76.3) (30.7-33.8) (46.3-49.3)
Age
  15-24 (reference) 48.1 72.0 27.9 49.2
(43.8-52.3) (67.7-76.2) (23.9-32.0) (44.6-53.8)
  25-34 52.1 74.5 30.3 46.5
(50.0-54.3) (72.5-76.6) (28.2-32.5) (44.1-48.9)
  35-44 56.6** 75.8 32.7 46.3
(53.9-59.3) (73.4-78.1) (30.0-35.3) (43.6-49.1)
  45-49 59.5** 78.5 36.4* 50.0
(55.0-63.9) (74.5-82.5) (31.6-41.1) (44.8-55.3)
Marital status
  Married (reference) 54.8 75.2 30.9 46.8
(53.3-56.4) (73.8-76.7) (29.4-32.5) (45.2-48.4)
  Cohabiting 51.9* 75.0 32.4 48.3
(49.8-54.1) (72.5-76.7) (30.3-34.4) (46.2-50.4)
Partner’s age
  14-24 (reference) 54.1 76.6 32.4 48.0
(48.7-59.5) (72.2-80.9) (27.4-37.4) (42.4-53.6)
  25-34 54.0 76.2 28.4 46.2
(51.4-56.6) (74.0-78.5) (25.8-31.0) (43.5-49.0)
  35-44 53.5 74.0 31.7 48.4
(51.4-55.7) (71.9-76.1) (29.6-33.9) (46.0-50.8)
  45+ 53.5 73.9 35.2 47.1
(49.6-57.4) (70.2-77.7) (31.4-39.0) (42.9-51.3)
Partner’s age, relative to respondent
  Same age or younger (ref.) 55.4 76.7 33.2 47.7
(52.8-58.0) (74.5-78.8) (30.8-35.6) (45.2-50.2)
  1-5 yrs. older 53.1 74.2 31.2 47.2
(51.4-54.7) (72.5-75.8) (29.5-33.0) (45.4-49.0)
  6+ yrs. older 53.1 74.7 29.9 47.1
(50.4-55.7) (72.4-77.0) (27.4-32.4) (44.5-49.8)
Partner’s education
  None (reference) 52.6 75.4 20.3 41.7
(42.9-62.4) (67.8-82.9) (12.5-28.0) (32.4-51.0)
  Primary 55.7 75.4 32.0** 47.1
(53.3-58.1) (73.3-77.5) (29.9-34.2) (44.7-49.6)
  Secondary 55.0 75.2 32.1* 49.3
(52.9-57.2) (73.2-77.3) (30.2-34.0) (47.2-51.5)
  Higher 46.6 73.8 29.6 44.3
(42.5-50.6) (70.4-77.2) (26.0-33.2) (40.3-48.3)
Education difference between partners
  Wife is more educated (ref.) 53.5 73.9 31.1 46.5
(50.7-56.3) (71.2-76.5) (28.4-33.8) (43.4-49.5)
  Same level of education 50.3 73.9 29.0 46.1
(47.7-52.9) (71.4-76.4) (26.7-31.2) (43.7-48.6)
  Husband is more educated 55.3 73.8 32.6 48.2
(53.4-57.2) (74.3-77.6) (30.7-34.5) (46.2-50.1)

*p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001.

Ψ Respondents who experienced sexual abuse may also have experienced psychological and/or physical abuse.

Meekers et al.

Meekers et al. BMC Women's Health 2013 13:28   doi:10.1186/1472-6874-13-28

Open Data