Table 2

Anti-caries Therapeutics for Controlled Release

Agent Released

Mode of Action

Relative Costs

Reference

Fluoride

mixed mode

low

Aaltonen et al., 2000 [18]

Chlorhexidine

disinfectant

low

Twetman, 2004 [19]

Xylitol

noncariogenic sweeteners

low

Smits & Arends, 1985. [20]

Tanzer, 1995 [21]

Commercial antibiotics

mixed targets

moderate

Anti-bacterial peptides (defensins, magainin derivatives, bacteriocins and cecropins)

cell membrane perforation

moderate/high

Otvos et al., 2004 [22]

Ericksen et al., 2005 [23]

pH Buffers

maintain non-acidic pH

low

Lynch, 2004 [24]

Chelators (EGTA)

strips Ca+2 from biofilm polysaccharide; causes biofilm disruption

low

Ozerdem et al., 2003 [25]

Raad et al., 2003 [26]

Polysaccharide modifiers (lyase, AlCl3)

moderate

Albrecht and Schiller, 2005 [27]

Stoodley et al., 2001 [28]

Enzymes (proteases)

enzymatically degrades cell walls and adhesin proteins

moderate/high

Berg et al., 2001 [29]

Johansen et al., 1997 [30]

Sato et al., 1983 [31]

Quorum sensing analogs (furanones, salicylic acid)

negates las and Rhl regulon systems, down-regulates polysaccharide synthesis

moderate/high

Daniels et al., 2004 [32]

Baveja et al., 2004 [33]

Anti-adhesin blockers

negates specific adhesion of select bacteria to exclusive ligand

high

Hajishengallis et al., 1992 [34]


Bryers and Ratner BMC Oral Health 2006 6(Suppl 1):S15   doi:10.1186/1472-6831-6-S1-S15

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