Table 1

Bacteria commonly found on the surfaces of the pharynx

Staphylococcus epidermidis

++

Streptococcus pyogenes*

+

Mycoplasmas

+

Staphylococcus aureus*

+

Neisseria sp.

++

Mycobacteria

+/-

Streptococcus mitis

+

Klebsiella pneumoniae

+/-

Lactobacillus sp.

+

Streptococcus salivarius

++

Neisseria meningitidis*

++

Hemophilus influenzae

+

Streptococcus mutans *

+

Corynebacteria

+

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

+/-

Enterococcus faecalis*

+/-

Actinomycetes

+

Proteus

+

Streptococcus pneumoniae

+

Spirochetes

+

Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli)*

+/-


++ = nearly 100% + = common +/- = rare * = potential pathogen.

Asterisks indicate members of the normal flora that may be considered major pathogens of humans.

Cazzolla et al. BMC Oral Health 2006 6:2   doi:10.1186/1472-6831-6-2

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