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Open Access Research article

Palatal mucosa derived fibroblasts present an adaptive behavior regarding cytokine secretion when grafted onto the gingival margin

Fabíola Pontes Azevedo1, Ana Carolina Faria Morandini2, Carla Renata Sipert2, Thiago José Dionísio2, Carlos Ferreira Santos2*, Carla Andreotti Damante1, Maria Lúcia Rubo de Rezende1, Adriana Campos Passanezi Sant’Ana1 and Sebastião Luiz Aguiar Greghi1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Prosthodontics, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

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BMC Oral Health 2014, 14:21  doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-21

Published: 20 March 2014

Abstract

Background

Considering that grafted gingival tissue might have to be adapted to the receptor area and that fibroblasts have the ability to respond to bacterial stimuli through the release of various cytokines, this study investigated whether fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa behave differently when grafted onto the gingival margin regarding cytokine secretion.

Methods

Biopsies from the palatal mucosa were collected at the time of free gingival graft surgery, and after four months re-collection was performed upon surgery for root coverage. Fibroblasts were isolated by the explant technique, cultured and stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Escherichia coli (Ec) LPS for 24 or 48 h for comparative evaluation of the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, IL-8/CXCL8, MIP-1α/CCL3, TGF-β, VEGF and CXCL16. Unstimulated cells were used as the control group. Cells were tested for viability through MTT assay, and secretion of cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in the cell supernatants by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

Results

Fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa maintained the same secretion pattern of IL-6 when grafted onto the gingival margin. On the contrary, fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft showed increased secretion of IL-8/CXCL8 even in the absence of stimulation. Interestingly, MIP-1α/CCL3 secretion by fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft was significantly increased after 48 hours of stimulation with Pg LPS and after 24 h with Ec LPS. Only fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft showed secretion of TGF-β. VEGF and CXCL16 secretion were not detected by both subsets of fibroblasts.

Conclusion

Fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa seem to be adapted to local conditions of the site microenvironment when grafted onto the gingival marginal area. This evidence supports the effective participation of fibroblasts in the homeostasis of the marginal periodontium through secretion modulation of important inflammatory mediators.

Keywords:
Periodontitis; Gingival fibroblasts; Cytokines; Chemokine; Inflammation