Table 3

Relationships between covariates and dental utilization outcome measures
Any dental care use in 2006 Diagnostic dental care use in 2006 Preventive dental care use in 2006 Routine restorative dental care use in 2006 Complex restorative dental care use in 2006
No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
n = 10,846 (41.7)  n = 15,147 (58.3) n = 11,772 (45.3) n = 14,221 (54.7) n = 13,119 (50.5) n = 12,874 (49.5) n = 21,116 (81.2) n = 4,877 (18.8) n = 23,637 (90.9) n = 2,356 (9.1)
Main predictor variables (chronic condition subgroups)
Respiratory condition
 No 2,017 (18.6) 2,398 (15.8)* 2,227 (18.9) 2,188 (15.4)* 2,427 (18.5) 1,988 (15.4)* 3,656 (17.3) 759 (15.6)† 4,078 (17.3) 337 (14.3)*
 Yes 8,829 (81.4) 12,749 (84.2) 9,545 (81.1) 12,033 (84.6) 10,692 (81.5) 10,886 (84.6) 17,460 (82.7) 4,118 (84.4) 19,559 (82.7) 2,019 (85.7)
Ear/nose/throat chronic condition
 No 3,025 (27.9) 3,940 (26.0)‡ 3,336 (28.3) 3,629 (25.5)* 3,751 (28.6) 3,214 (25.0)* 5,650 (26.8) 1,315 (27.0) 6,433 (27.2) 532 (22.6)*
 Yes 7,821 (72.1) 11,207 (74.0) 8,436 (71.7) 10,592 (74.5) 9,368 (71.4) 9,660 (75.0) 15,466 (73.2) 3,562 (73.0) 17,204 (72.8) 1,824 (77.4)
Digestive condition
 No 6,286 (58.0) 8,473 (55.9)† 6,842 (58.1) 7,917 (55.7)* 7,555 (57.6) 7,204 (56.0)‡ 11,937 (56.5) 2,822 (57.9) 13,469 (57.0) 1,290 (54.8)‡
 Yes 4,560 (42.0) 6,674 (44.1) 4,930 (41.9) 6,304 (44.3) 5,564 (42.4) 5,670 (44.0) 9,179 (43.5) 2,055 (42.1) 10,168 (43.0) 1,066 (45.2)
Musculoskeletal condition
 No 6,373 (58.8) 8,384 (55.4)* 6,891 (58.5) 7,866 (55.3)* 7,532 (57.4) 7,225 (56.1)‡ 12,102 (57.3) 2,655 (54.4)* 13,438 (56.9) 1,319 (56.0)
 Yes 4,473 (41.2) 6,763 (44.6) 4,881 (41.5) 6,355 (44.7) 5,587 (42.6) 5,649 (43.9) 9,014 (42.7) 2,222 (45.6) 10,199 (43.1) 1,037 (44.0)
Endocrine condition
 No 8,508 (78.4) 11,921 (78.7) 9,249 (78.6) 11,180 (78.6) 10,272 (78.3) 10,157 (78.9) 16,408 (77.7) 4,021 (82.4)* 18,559 (78.5) 1,870 (79.4)
 Yes 2,338 (21.6) 3,226 (21.3) 2,523 (21.4) 3,041 (21.4) 2,847 (21.7) 2,717 (21.1) 4,708 (22.3) 856 (17.6) 5,078 (21.5) 486 (20.6)
Cardiovascular condition
 No 9,743 (89.8) 13,597 (89.8) 10,586 (89.9) 12,754 (89.7) 11,747 (89.5) 11,593 (90.0) 18,938 (89.7) 4,402 (90.3) 21,242 (89.9) 2,098 (89.0)
 Yes 1,103 (10.2) 1,550 (10.2) 1,186 (10.1) 1,467 (10.3) 1,372 (10.5) 1,281 (10.0) 2,178 (10.3) 475 (9.7) 2,395 (10.1) 258 (11.0)
Hematologic condition
 No 10,182 (93.9) 14,143 (93.4) 11,047 (93.8) 13,278 (93.4) 12,307 (93.8) 12,018 (93.4) 19,746 (93.5) 4,579 (93.9) 22,101 (93.5) 2,224 (94.4)
 Yes 664 (6.1) 1,004 (6.6) 725 (6.2) 943 (6.6) 812 (6.2) 856 (6.6) 1,370 (6.5) 298 (6.1) 1,536 (6.5) 132 (5.6)
Catastrophic neurological condition
 No 10,491 (96.7) 14,865 (98.1)* 11,386 (96.7) 13,970 (98.2)* 12,721 (97.0) 12,635 (98.1)* 20,527 (97.2) 4,829 (99.0)* 23,054 (97.5) 2,302 (97.7)
 Yes 355 (3.3) 282 (1.9) 386 (3.3) 251 (1.8) 398 (3.0) 239 (1.9) 589 (2.8) 48 (1.0) 583 (2.5) 54 (2.3)
Craniofacial condition
 No 10,648 (98.2) 14, 865 (98.1)* 11,386 (96.7) 13,964 (98.2) 12,864 (98.1) 12,653 (98.3) 20,703 (98.0) 4,814 (98.7)‡ 23,198 (98.1) 2,319 (98.4)
 Yes 198 (1.8) 282 (1.9) 386 (3.3) 257 (1.8) 255 (1.9) 221 (1.7) 413 (2.0) 63 (1.3) 439 (1.9) 37 (1.6)
Diabetes
 No 10,690 (98.6) 14,952 (98.7) 11,603 (98.6) 14,039 (98.7) 12,933 (98.6) 12,709 (98.7) 20,822 (98.6) 4,820 (98.8) 23,207 (98.6) 2,335 (99.1)‡
 Yes 156 (1.4) 195 (1.3) 169 (1.4) 182 (1.3) 186 (1.4) 165 (1.3) 294 (1.4) 57 (1.2) 330 (1.4) 21 (0.9)
Ascribed factors
Age (years)
 3–7 4,023 (37.1) 5,621 (37.1) 4,287 (36.4) 5,357 (37.7)* 4,588 (35.0) 5,056 (39.3)* 7,969 (37.7) 1,675 (34.3)* 8,659 (36.6) 985 (41.8)*
 8–12 4,60 2(42.4) 6,719 (44.4) 5,042 (42.8) 6,279 (44.2) 5,424 (41.3) 5,897 (45.8) 9,208 (43.8) 2,113 (43.3) 10,218 (43.2) 1.103(46.8)
 13–14 2,221 (20.5) 2,807(18.5) 2,443 (20.8) 2,585 (18.12) 3,107 (23.7) 1,921 (14.9) 3,939 (18.7) 1,089 (22.3) 4,760 (20.1) 268 (11.4)
Sex
 Female 4,178 (38.5) 6,256 (41.3)* 4,544 (38.6) 5,890 (41.4)* 5,147 (39.2) 5,287(41.1)^ 8,436 (40.0) 1,998 (41.0) 9,483 (40 1) 951 (40.4)
Race/ethnicity
 White 7,400(68.2) 10.855 (71.7)* 8,069 (68.5) 10,186 (71.6)* 9,099 (69.4) 9,156 (71.1) 14,696(69.8) 3,559 (73.0)* 16,539 (70.0) 1.716 (72.8)*
 Black 1,140 (10.5) 1,232 (8.1) 1,193 (10.1) 1,179 (8.3) 1,303 (9.9) 1,069 (8.3) 1,992 (9.4) 380 (7.8) 2,220 (9.4) 152 (6.5)
 Other 817 (7.5) 1,127 (7.4) 883 (7.5) 1,061 (7.5)* 948(72) 996 (7.7) 1,562(7.4) 382 (7.8) 1,751 (7.4) 193 (8.2)
 Missing Unknown 1,489 (13.7) 1,933 (12.8) 1,627 (13.8) 1,795 (12.6) 1,653 (13.5) 1,653 (12.8) 2,866 (13.6) 556 (11.4) 3,127 (13.2) 295 (12.5)
Chronic condition severity
 Episodic 7,504 (69.2) 10,521 (69.5)* 8,139 (69.1) 9,886 (69.5)* 9,037 (68.9) 8,988 (69.8)* 14,488 (68.8) 3,537 (72.5) 16,396 (69.4) 1,629 (69.1)
 Life-Long 3,019 (27.8) 4,305 (28.4) 3,279 (27.9) 4,045 (28.4) 3,705 (28.2) 3,619 (28.1) 1,992 (9.4) 1,269 (26.0) 6,654 (28.2) 670 (28.4)
 Malignancy 33 (0.3) 52 (0.3) 37 (0.3) 48 (0.3) 43 (0.3) 42 (0.3) 1,562 (7.4) 20 (0.4) 72 (0.3) 13 (0.6)
 Catastrophic 290 (2.7) 269 (1.8) 317 (2.7) 242 (1.7) 334 (2.5) 225 (1.7) 2,866 (13.6) 51 (1.0) 515 (2.2) 44 (1.9)
Proximal factors
Child used preventive medical care in 2005 9,391 (86.6) 13,689 (90.4)* 10,205 (86.7) 12,875 (90.5)* 11,437 (87.2) 11,643 (90.4)* 18,691 (88.5) 4,389 (90.0)† 20,969 (88.7) 2,111 (89.6)
Immediate factors
Child had at least one Medicaid- enrolled sibling 7,200 (66.4) 10,249 (67.7)‡ 7,816 (66.4) 9,633 (67.7)‡ 8,677 (66.1) 8,772 (68.1)† 13,971 (66.2) 3,478 (71.3)* 15,806 (66.9) 1,643 (69.7)†
Child had at least one Medicaid- enrolled adult 6,097 (56.2) 8,339 (55.1) 6,528 (55.5) 7,908 (55.6) 7,334 (55.9) 7,102 (55.2) 11,595 (54.9) 2,841 (58.3)* 13,036 (55.2) 1,400 (59.4)*
Immediate factor
Rurality
 Metropolitan 5,854 (54.0) 8,499 (56.1)† 6,363 (54.1) 7,990 (56.2)† 6,958 (53.0) 7,395 (57.4)* 11,631 (55.1) 2,722 (55.8) 13,007 (55.0) 1,346 (57.1)
 Urban adjacent to metropolitan 2,123 (19.6) 2,855 (18.8) 2,308 (19.6) 2,670 (18.8) 2,607 (19.9) 2,371 (18.4) 4,088 (19.4) 890 (18.2) 4,545 (19.2) 433 (18.4)
 Urban non-adjacent to metropolitan 2,275 (21.0) 2,962 (19.6) 2,456 (20.9) 2,781 (19.6) 2,802 (21.4) 2,435 (18.9) 4,264 (20.2) 973 (20.0) 4,783 (20.2) 454 (19.3)
 Rural 594 (5.5) 831 (5.5) 645 (5.5) 780 (5.5) 752 (5.7) 673 (5.2) 1,133 (5.4) 292 (6.0) 1,302 (5.5) 123 (5.2)
Distal factor
Child lived in a dental Health Professional Shortage Area 7,260 (66.9) 9,850 (65.0)† 7,821 (66.4) 9,289 (65.3) 8,718 (66.5) 8,392 (65.2)‡ 13,898 (65.8) 3,215 (65.9) 15,566 (65.9) 1,544 (65.5)

Pearson Chi Square test to evaluate bivariate relationship between model covariates and each outcome measure.

* p < .0001.

† p < .01.

‡ p < .05.

Chi and Raklios

Chi and Raklios BMC Oral Health 2012 12:28   doi:10.1186/1472-6831-12-28

Open Data