Table 1

Factors associated with the development of visceral obesity
Factor Association Reference
Genetics Ethnicity, hypothalamic genetic disorders, etc. [28-32]
Age ↑ Age → ↑ WC (Age > 60 → ↑ WC) [33,34]
Sex Male WC > Female WC [33]
Physical Activity Status ↑ Physical Activity Status → ↓ WC [35,36]
Dietary Composition ↑ Fat/Fructose content → ↑ WHR [37-39]
Smoking ↑ Smoking → ↑ WHR [8,40]
Alcohol Consumption ↑ Alcohol consumption → ↑ WHR [8,41]
Socio-Economic Status ↓ Socio-Economic Status → ↑ WHR [8,42]
Stress-related Mood ↑ Depression/Anxiety → ↑ WHR [8,43]
Disorders

Abbreviations: WC, waist-circumference; WHR, waist-to-hip circumference ratio.

Speaker and Fleshner

Speaker and Fleshner BMC Physiology 2012 12:8   doi:10.1186/1472-6793-12-8

Open Data