Schematic representation of how AO3Q is implemented in the field. The order of the quadrants is arbitrary. In practice much time is spent deciding which is the third closest individual and into which quadrant an individual lies. R(3)ij = the distance from the ith sample point to the third CI for the jth quadrant.
White et al. BMC Ecology 2008 8:6 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-8-6