Table 1

Reef fish species that were found to show red fluorescence

Family

Species

Site

Size (cm)

Red fluorescent body parts

Strength

Guanine crystals

Peak emission (nm)


Syngnathidae

Corythoichthys flavofasciatus

2

12

1, 2, 4, 8, 7

+++

yes

599–604

C. schultzi

2

15

1, 2, 4, 7, 9

+++

yes

600–605

Labridae

Paracheilinus octotaenia

1, 2

9

4

++

-

653–658, 695–699

Pseudocheilinus evanidus

1, 2, 4

8

4

++

no

-

Blenniidae

Crossosalarias macrospilus

3

8

1, 2, 4, 10

+++

-

-

Ecsenius dentex

2

6

1, 2

+

yes

584–589

Tripterygiidae

Enneapterygius abeli

2

2.5

1, 2, 4

++

-

597–602

E. destai

2

2

1, 5

++

-

-

E. mirabilis

3

3.5

1, 5, 8, 10

+++

-

-

E. pusillus

2

2

1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10

+++

yes

596–601, 684–689

Helcogramma steinitzi

2

5

1, 2, 5

+++

-

597–602

Ucla xenogrammus

3

5.5

1, 10

+++

-

-

Gobiidae

Bryaninops natans

1, 2, 5

2.5

1

+++

yes

605–610

B. ridens

2, 5

2

1

+

-

-

B. yongei

2, 5

2.5

1

++

-

-

Ctenogobiops maculosus

1, 2

7

1

+++

-

-

C. tangaroai

4

7

1

+++

yes

605–610

Eviota distigma

2

2

1, 11

+

-

too weak

E. guttata

2

2.5

1, 2, 4, 6, 9

+++

-

605–610

E. nigriventris

4

2.5

1, 2

+

-

-

E. pellucida

3, 4

2.5

1, 2, 3, 6

+++

yes

604–609

E. prasina

2

3

1, 12

+

-

596–601

E. queenslandica

3

3

1

+

-

E. sebreei

2

2.5

1

+

yes

585–590

E. zebrina

3, 5

3

1, 2, 4, 9

+++

yes

600–604

Fusigobius duospilus

2

6

1

+++

-

-

F. longispinus

2

7

1

+

yes

600–605

Gnatholepis anjerensis

2

8

1

+

yes

-

Istigobius decoratus

2

12

1

+

yes

591–596

Pleurosicya micheli

2, 5

3

1

++

yes

601–606

P. prognatha

2, 5

2

1

+++

yes

608–613

Trimma avidori

2

3

1, 2, 9

+

-

590–595


Study localities: 1 = El Quseir (Sharm Fugani, Egypt, field); 2 = Dahab Marine Research Centre (South Sinai, Egypt, field and laboratory), 3 = Lizard Island Research Station (Queensland, Australia, field and laboratory), 4 = Tübingen (laboratory), 5 = Collection JH, Vienna. Fluorescent body parts are encoded as follows: 1 = Eye rings, 2 = Head (dorsal), 3 = Lateral lines, 4 = Trunk, 5 = First dorsal fin, 6 = Anal fin, 7 = Tailfin, 8 = Snout, 9 = Dots on body, 10 = Spine, 11 = Gut. Strength of fluorescence is a consensus measure among observers based on visibility in the field and/or the laboratory: Strong (+++) means strikingly bright in the field as well as in the laboratory, easy to photograph and strong spectrometric signal; weak (+) means only visible under laboratory conditions, requiring long integration times for fluorescence measurement and long exposure times for photography (optimized for each specimen). Peak emission is shown as 5 nm interval.

Michiels et al. BMC Ecology 2008 8:16   doi:10.1186/1472-6785-8-16

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