Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Red fluorescence in reef fish: A novel signalling mechanism?

Nico K Michiels1*, Nils Anthes1, Nathan S Hart2, Jürgen Herler3, Alfred J Meixner4, Frank Schleifenbaum4, Gregor Schulte1, Ulrike E Siebeck2, Dennis Sprenger1 and Matthias F Wucherer1

Author Affiliations

1 Faculty of Biology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tübingen, Germany

2 School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia

3 Department of Theoretical Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria

4 Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen, Germany

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BMC Ecology 2008, 8:16  doi:10.1186/1472-6785-8-16

Published: 16 September 2008

Abstract

Background

At depths below 10 m, reefs are dominated by blue-green light because seawater selectively absorbs the longer, 'red' wavelengths beyond 600 nm from the downwelling sunlight. Consequently, the visual pigments of many reef fish are matched to shorter wavelengths, which are transmitted better by water. Combining the typically poor long-wavelength sensitivity of fish eyes with the presumed lack of ambient red light, red light is currently considered irrelevant for reef fish. However, previous studies ignore the fact that several marine organisms, including deep sea fish, produce their own red luminescence and are capable of seeing it.

Results

We here report that at least 32 reef fishes from 16 genera and 5 families show pronounced red fluorescence under natural, daytime conditions at depths where downwelling red light is virtually absent. Fluorescence was confirmed by extensive spectrometry in the laboratory. In most cases peak emission was around 600 nm and fluorescence was associated with guanine crystals, which thus far were known for their light reflecting properties only. Our data indicate that red fluorescence may function in a context of intraspecific communication. Fluorescence patterns were typically associated with the eyes or the head, varying substantially even between species of the same genus. Moreover red fluorescence was particularly strong in fins that are involved in intraspecific signalling. Finally, microspectrometry in one fluorescent goby, Eviota pellucida, showed a long-wave sensitivity that overlapped with its own red fluorescence, indicating that this species is capable of seeing its own fluorescence.

Conclusion

We show that red fluorescence is widespread among marine fishes. Many features indicate that it is used as a private communication mechanism in small, benthic, pair- or group-living fishes. Many of these species show quite cryptic colouration in other parts of the visible spectrum. High inter-specific variation in red fluorescence and its association with structures used in intra-specific signalling further corroborate this view. Our findings challenge the notion that red light is of no importance to marine fish, calling for a reassessment of its role in fish visual ecology in subsurface marine environments.