Changes in the solution behavior of a predator–prey model subject to environmental pressures and given by system (2). (a) Phase plane showing the limit cycles exhibited by the populations of prey and predator species for different values of the environmental pressure parameter e. Note that the amplitude of the oscillations increases as e decreases, i.e. when environmental effects are less favorable. This may be the case when the prey population is submitted to intense hunting. (b) Amplitude of the limit cycle as a function of the parameter e.
Loeuille and Ghil BMC Ecology 2004 4:6 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-4-6