Table 4

Differences in size and mass between right and left bones of forelimbs in 23 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus).

All specimens

(n = 23)

Average of differences, ∑ (R-L)/n (mm or g)

Average of differences in % of bone length or mass ∑ ((R-L)/L*100)/n

% R > L;R = L; R < L

Significance of difference (Wilcoxon signed rank test)


Scapula length

(n = 22)

2.63

1.08

64% 18% 18%

0.005*

Scapula height

(n = 22)

0.18

-0.02

41% 27% 32%

0.68

Humerus length

(n = 21)

1.00

0.64

52% 43% 5%

0.004*

Radius length

(n = 23)

0.39

0.29

39% 39% 22%

0.29

Ulna length

(n = 21)

1.38

0.62

62% 29% 9%

0.02*

Scapula mass

(n = 19)

2.05

0.66

37% 10% 53%

0.67

Humerus mass

(n = 17)

5.06

1.08

71% 5% 24%

0.09

Radius mass

(n = 20)

-0.10

1.14

50% 30% 20%

0.44

Ulna mass

(n = 21)

1.76

0.45

38% 33% 29%

0.55


R refers to right bones. L refers to left bones. Size: mm. Mass: g. The numbers in brackets are number of examined specimens. P-values marked with * are statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05).

Levermann et al. BMC Ecology 2003 3:9   doi:10.1186/1472-6785-3-9

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