Table 1

Comparative pathologies of Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae
Varroa destructor Nosema ceranae
Type of parasite ectoparasite endoparasite
Mode of action Sucks hemolymph/transmits viruses Attacks epithelium of the gut
Mode of transmission Enters brood cell before operculation; phoresis-carried between cells by adult bees (males and females) Oral transmission between workers, matrices of the hive
Stage(s) attacked Nymph/adult Adult
Physiological effects Reduced weight, metabolism, vitellogenin titers, and proportion of normal hemocytes; increased ecdysteroid titers [24,25] Increase oxidative stress; degeneration of gut epithelium [26]; reduced vitellogenin level [27]; induces pheromone (ethyl oleate) production [28]
Lifespan decrease [12] Lifespan decrease
Behavioral effects Impaired orientation [22] Impaired orientation [29]
Accelerated maturation [11,12] Accelerated maturation [13,14]
Faster habituation and lower response probability to odor stimulus but no change in sucrose response [30] Increased sucrose response based on PER test [31]

McDonnell et al.

McDonnell et al. BMC Ecology 2013 13:25   doi:10.1186/1472-6785-13-25

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