Parasitism did not induce different behavioral treatment by colony nestmates. The rate of behavioral acts or interactions did not differ between Nosema-infected and control bees (A and B), and Varroa-infested and control bees (C and D) (Mann–Whitney tests, P > 0.05 for each behavior). The experiment was performed on two colonies (19–20 bees/state in the Nosema experiment and 12 bees/state in the Varroa experiment).
McDonnell et al. BMC Ecology 2013 13:25 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-13-25