Mating and fighting behaviour of ergatoid males towards dark pupae in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. Ergatoid males performed copulation attempts towards dark female sexual and winged male pupae, which were close to emergence. Sporadic biting and smearing was observed against ergatoid male pupae and also against winged male pupae.
Cremer et al. BMC Ecology 2012 12:7 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-12-7