(A) Root/shoot ratio, (B) leaf weight ratio, (C) total leaf area and (D) specific leaf area of the invasive and native species according to the environmental conditions. Root/shoot ratio (RSR), total leaf area (TLA, m2), leaf weight ratio (LWR, g. g-1), specific leaf area (SLA, m2. kg-1). Values are means of nine to twelve seedlings (± 1 SE of the mean) for the invasive species (A. negundo, full diamonds), late-successional native species (F. excelsior and F. angustifolia, grey triangles) and early-successional native species (S. alba and P. nigra, open squares) across the three shade levels (Full light C, Shade S, Deep shade SS), the two nutrient levels (nutrient supply N+ vs. no supply N-) and the two disturbance regimes (Disturbed D vs. Non-disturbed ND).
Porté et al. BMC Ecology 2011 11:28 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-11-28