Damage to plant tissue by zombie ants. Photographs of abaxial vein and leaf lamina where zombie ants bit leading to scar formation by the plant. In A) two large holes are visible where the mandibles penetrated the lamina. In addition smaller marks are evident that formed as a result of rasping before the final death grip (see text). In B-D only one set of mandible marks occur. In all cases the vein has been cut. The arrows bars are 0.4 mm, 0.8 mm, 0.6 mm and 0.5 mm for A,B,C,D respectively.
Hughes et al. BMC Ecology 2011 11:13 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-11-13