Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in horseshoe Kidneys: is rigid nephroscopy sufficient tool for complete clearance? a case series study
Department of Urology, Cairo University hospitals, 1 Al-saray street, Al-Manial, Cairo 11559, Egypt
BMC Urology 2009, 9:17 doi:10.1186/1471-2490-9-17Published: 16 November 2009
this study represents a case series to evaluate how successful is the rigid percutaneous nephroscopy as a tool for clearance of all stones in various locations in horseshoe kidneys.
Between 2005 and 2009, we carried out PCNL (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) for calculi in horseshoe kidneys in 21 renal units (17 patients) in our department. The indications were large stone burden in 18 units and failed SWL(shock wave lithotripsy) in 3 renal units. All procedures were done under general anesthesia; using fluoroscopic guidance for localization and standard alkan dilatation followed by rigid nephroscopy and stone extraction with or without stone disintegration. We analyzed our results regarding the site and number of the required access, the intra and postoperative complications, the presence of any residual stones, as well as their location.
The procedure was completed, using a single access tract in 20 renal units, with the site of puncture being the upper calyx in nine units and the posterior middle calyx in eleven units. Only in one renal unit, two access tracts (an upper and a lower calyceal) were required for completion and a supracostal puncture was required in another case. There was no significant intraoperative bleeding and no blood transfusion was required in any patient. A pelvic perforation occurred in one case, requiring longer PCN (percutaneous nephrostomy) drainage. One patient with infection stones suffered urosepsis postoperatively which was successfully managed. Three cases had residual stones, all located in the renal isthmus, all residuals were un approachable with the rigid instrument; resulting in a overall stone-free rate of 85.7% at discharge.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is generally safe and successful in the management of stones in horseshoe kidneys. However, location of the stones in these patients is crucial to decide the proper tool for optimal stone clearance result.