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Open Access Research article

Concern for overtreatment using the AUA/ASTRO guideline on adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy

Jung Hun Kang12, Yun-Sok Ha13, Sung Kim4, Jihyeong Yu5, Neal Patel1, Jaspreet S Parihar1, Amirali Hassanzadeh Salmasi1, Wun-Jae Kim6 and Isaac Yi Kim1*

Author Affiliations

1 Section of Urologic Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA

2 Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

3 Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu, South Korea

4 Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

5 Department of Urology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

6 Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, South Korea

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BMC Urology 2014, 14:30  doi:10.1186/1471-2490-14-30

Published: 7 April 2014

Abstract

Background

Recently, three prospective randomized trials have shown that adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) after radical prostatectomy for the patients with pT3 and/or positive margins improves biochemical progression-free survival and local recurrence free survival. But, the optimal management of these patients after radical prostatectomy is an issue which has been debated continuously. The object of this study was to determine the necessity of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) by reviewing the outcomes of observation without ART after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with pathologic indications for ART according to the American Urological Association (AUA)/American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) guideline.

Methods

From a prospectively maintained database, 163 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. These men had a pathological stage pT2–3 N0 with undetectable PSA level after RP and met one or more of the three following risk factors: capsular perforation, positive surgical margins, or seminal vesicle invasion. We excluded the patients who had received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy or adjuvant treatment, or had less than 24 months of follow-up. To determine the factors that influenced biochemical recurrence-free (BCR), univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed.

Results

Among the 163 patients, median follow-up was 50.5 months (24.0-88.2 months). Of those men under observation, 27 patients had BCR and received salvage radiotherapy (SRT). The multivariate Cox analysis showed that BCR was marginally associated with pre-operative serum PSA (P = 0.082), and the pathologic GS (HR, 4.063; P = 0.001) was an independent predictor of BCR. More importantly, in 87 patients with pre-operative PSA < 6.35 ng/ml and GS ≤ 7, only 3 developed BCR.

Conclusions

Of the 163 patients who qualified for ART based on the current AUA/ASTRO guideline, only 27 (16.6%) developed BCR and received SRT. Therefore, using ART following RP using the current recommendation may be an overtreatment in an overwhelming majority of the patients.

Keywords:
Radical prostatectomy; Radiotherapy; Biochemical recurrence