Open Access Open Badges Research article

Single minimum incision endoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal tumors with preoperative virtual navigation using 3D-CT volume-rendering

Takao Kamai1*, Nobutaka Furuya1, Tsunehito Kambara1, Hideyuki Abe1, Mikihiko Honda1, Yasukazu Shioyama2, Yasushi Kaji2 and Ken-Ichiro Yoshida1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Urology, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan

2 Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan

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BMC Urology 2010, 10:7  doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-7

Published: 14 April 2010



Single minimum incision endoscopic surgery (MIES) involves the use of a flexible high-definition laparoscope to facilitate open surgery. We reviewed our method of radical nephrectomy for renal tumors, which is single MIES combined with preoperative virtual surgery employing three-dimensional CT images reconstructed by the volume rendering method (3D-CT images) in order to safely and appropriately approach the renal hilar vessels. We also assessed the usefulness of 3D-CT images.


Radical nephrectomy was done by single MIES via the translumbar approach in 80 consecutive patients. We performed the initial 20 MIES nephrectomies without preoperative 3D-CT images and the subsequent 60 MIES nephrectomies with preoperative 3D-CT images for evaluation of the renal hilar vessels and the relation of each tumor to the surrounding structures. On the basis of the 3D information, preoperative virtual surgery was performed with a computer.


Single MIES nephrectomy was successful in all patients. In the 60 patients who underwent 3D-CT, the number of renal arteries and veins corresponded exactly with the preoperative 3D-CT data (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity). These 60 nephrectomies were completed with a shorter operating time and smaller blood loss than the initial 20 nephrectomies.


Single MIES radical nephrectomy combined with 3D-CT and virtual surgery achieved a shorter operating time and less blood loss, possibly due to safer and easier handling of the renal hilar vessels.