Table 5

Retrospective studies of frequency of complications in studies of child circumcision undertaken by non-medical providers

Author

Country

Years

Setting

Number of males

Age at circumcision

Provider

Frequency of adverse eventsa

Frequency of serious adverse eventsb


Ahmed [7]

Nigeria

1981-1995

Community

1360 (approx)

Mean 4 years

Traditional

3.4%

-


Atikeler [54]

Turkey

1999-2002

Community

407

Mean 7 years

Traditional

73%c


Lee [55]

Phillipines

2002

Community

114

42% 5-9 years

52% 10-14 years

5% 15-18 years

32% medical

68% traditional

63%d

3.5%


Myers [56]

Nigeria

-

Community

750

Infant/child

68% traditional

25% nurse/midwife

4% doctor

2.8%

-


Yegane [77]

Iran

2002

Community

1359

71% after 2 years of age

Traditional circumcisers

2.7%% (late complications)

0%


a Cases of minor bleeding stopped with simple pressure or 'conservative management' and excessive foreskin/inadequate circumcision are not included

b Includes complications defined as 'serious' or 'severe' by authors, or with long-term or life-threatening sequalae (partial amputation of glans, urethral laceration, need for re-surgery or plastic surgery)

c This very high rate of complications consisted of bleeding (24%), infection (14%), incomplete circumcision (12%), subcutaneous cysts (15%), haematoma (6%), ischaemia (3%), penile adhesion (3%), and other conditions. Of the 97 cases of bleeding, 48 could not be stopped by haemostatic bandage and were sutured. Infections were treated with parenteral or oral antibiotics.

d Of these,94% were reported swollen or inflamed penises. Four respondents (3.5%) of those circumcised) reported profuse bleeding

Weiss et al. BMC Urology 2010 10:2   doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-2

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